Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/289234
Title:
Reducing the environmental impact of aquaculture
Author:
McIntosh, Dennis
Issue Date:
2002
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Aquaculture has great potential to help supply the nutritional needs of a growing population. To date, however, the benefits that aquaculture can have, have largely been overshadowed by the environmental degradation some segments of the industry have caused. The following body of work describes my efforts to help reduce the environmental impacts of aquaculture. By integrating aquaculture production into traditional agriculture, the impact of farming on already limited water resources and the reliance on chemical fertilizers can be reduced. Recent expansion of the aquaculture industry in Arizona has made it possible to study the integration of olive groves with marine shrimp culture. In chapter 3, I describe the characterization and evaluation of the effluent from an inland, low-salinity shrimp farm as a potential source of irrigation water. I found that 0.41 kg of ammonia-nitrogen, 0.698 kg of nitrite-nitrogen, 8.7 kg of nitrate-nitrogen and 0.93 kg of total phosphorus (TP) were made available as fertilizer each day in the effluent water. Based on the results of this first study, I decided to conduct a farm trial to quantify the effects of these shrimp farm effluents on olive trees. This work is described in chapter 4. Trees in all treatment groups grew an average of 40.1 cm over the four month study period. While growth of trees irrigated with shrimp farm effluent did not improve in respect to the other treatments, our results do indicate that irrigating with low-salinity water had no noticeable negative effects. Chapter 5 describes work conducted in Idaho, as part of a larger study aimed at reducing the effluent loads of phosphorus (P) from high density, flow-through aquaculture facilities. Research steps were taken to establish a relationship between TP and the carbon 12/13 isotope ratio (δ¹³C) and/or the nitrogen 14/15 isotope ratio (δ¹⁵N). Our findings suggest that both δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C are good better proxies for P, after correcting for P retention. A linear regression of %P (corrected) on δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N resulted in R2 values of 0.843 and 0.8622, respectively. This suggests that by tracking δ¹⁵N and/or δ¹³C through a high-density, flow-through aquaculture facility over time I will be able to determine the residence time of P with a high degree of accuracy.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Engineering, Agricultural.; Engineering, Environmental.; Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Soil, Water and Environmental Science
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Fitzsimmons, Kevin M.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleReducing the environmental impact of aquacultureen_US
dc.creatorMcIntosh, Dennisen_US
dc.contributor.authorMcIntosh, Dennisen_US
dc.date.issued2002en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractAquaculture has great potential to help supply the nutritional needs of a growing population. To date, however, the benefits that aquaculture can have, have largely been overshadowed by the environmental degradation some segments of the industry have caused. The following body of work describes my efforts to help reduce the environmental impacts of aquaculture. By integrating aquaculture production into traditional agriculture, the impact of farming on already limited water resources and the reliance on chemical fertilizers can be reduced. Recent expansion of the aquaculture industry in Arizona has made it possible to study the integration of olive groves with marine shrimp culture. In chapter 3, I describe the characterization and evaluation of the effluent from an inland, low-salinity shrimp farm as a potential source of irrigation water. I found that 0.41 kg of ammonia-nitrogen, 0.698 kg of nitrite-nitrogen, 8.7 kg of nitrate-nitrogen and 0.93 kg of total phosphorus (TP) were made available as fertilizer each day in the effluent water. Based on the results of this first study, I decided to conduct a farm trial to quantify the effects of these shrimp farm effluents on olive trees. This work is described in chapter 4. Trees in all treatment groups grew an average of 40.1 cm over the four month study period. While growth of trees irrigated with shrimp farm effluent did not improve in respect to the other treatments, our results do indicate that irrigating with low-salinity water had no noticeable negative effects. Chapter 5 describes work conducted in Idaho, as part of a larger study aimed at reducing the effluent loads of phosphorus (P) from high density, flow-through aquaculture facilities. Research steps were taken to establish a relationship between TP and the carbon 12/13 isotope ratio (δ¹³C) and/or the nitrogen 14/15 isotope ratio (δ¹⁵N). Our findings suggest that both δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C are good better proxies for P, after correcting for P retention. A linear regression of %P (corrected) on δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N resulted in R2 values of 0.843 and 0.8622, respectively. This suggests that by tracking δ¹⁵N and/or δ¹³C through a high-density, flow-through aquaculture facility over time I will be able to determine the residence time of P with a high degree of accuracy.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectEngineering, Agricultural.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering, Environmental.en_US
dc.subjectAgriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineSoil, Water and Environmental Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorFitzsimmons, Kevin M.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest3050352en_US
dc.identifier.bibrecord.b42728307en_US
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