A PSYCHOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC DEPTH PERCEPTION THRESHOLD IN THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM USING ROTATING THREE-DIMENSIONAL LISSAJOUS PATTERNS

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/282625
Title:
A PSYCHOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC DEPTH PERCEPTION THRESHOLD IN THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM USING ROTATING THREE-DIMENSIONAL LISSAJOUS PATTERNS
Author:
Gardner, Keith Leroy
Issue Date:
1980
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
A tridimensional optical display is described which is capable of producing real images with no optics between the observer and the image. This display, which is called the Visually Integrated Volumetric Image (VIVID), was developed as a laboratory system designed to be used in vision research. Three dimensional Lissajous patterns were produced, whose rotational position and axial depth could be precisely controlled by a general purpose digital minicomputer. By reversing the direction of rotation of the pattern in a known manner, and recording a subject's ability to perceive the true rotational direction for various amounts of axial image depth, the transition between the kinetic depth effect and true depth perception could be investigated. This transition forms the basis for defining a depth perception threshold for this type of a dynamic three dimensional image. Two experiments were performed using this approach. In the first experiment, ten undergraduate and graduate students (both male and female) observed the pattern during 24 one-minute trials. Eight different axial depth values were used, with three trials at each depth. The patterns were made to reverse rotation direction in a pseudo-random manner which was different for each trial presented to a given subject. The subject indicated the perceived direction of rotation by controlling a two position rotary switch, which was monitored by the computer. The total time during which the subject correctly tracked the rotation was integrated by the computer. The ratio of this correct tracking time to the total trial time was taken as a measure of the subject's ability to perceive the axial depth of the image. Plots of this ratio as a function of image depth are presented and discussed. The results averaged over all subjects produce a remarkably smooth curve, yielding a depth perception threshold of 2 mm for the subject population under the given experimental conditions. The characteristics of the stimulus were: (a) 2 cm high by 2 cm wide pattern; (b) Lissajous pattern frequency ratio of 6:1; (c) Axial distance from observer of 55 cm; (d) Wavelength of 533 nm (green); (e) Horizontal rotation axis; (f) Rotation period of 7 seconds; (g) Neutral background field illumination over a 40° come angle; (h) Image line width of 0.5 mm. The second experiment was a pilot experiment designed to investigate the effect of wavelength variations on this form of depth perception. A single subject was presented with a total of 192 one-minute trials at four wavelengths spanning the visible region (i.e., 6 one-minute trials for each of eight depth values at each wavelength). No significant wavelength dependence was observed in this pilot experiment.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Depth perception.; Visual perception.; Lissajous' curves.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Optical Sciences
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Wheeler, L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleA PSYCHOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC DEPTH PERCEPTION THRESHOLD IN THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM USING ROTATING THREE-DIMENSIONAL LISSAJOUS PATTERNSen_US
dc.creatorGardner, Keith Leroyen_US
dc.contributor.authorGardner, Keith Leroyen_US
dc.date.issued1980en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractA tridimensional optical display is described which is capable of producing real images with no optics between the observer and the image. This display, which is called the Visually Integrated Volumetric Image (VIVID), was developed as a laboratory system designed to be used in vision research. Three dimensional Lissajous patterns were produced, whose rotational position and axial depth could be precisely controlled by a general purpose digital minicomputer. By reversing the direction of rotation of the pattern in a known manner, and recording a subject's ability to perceive the true rotational direction for various amounts of axial image depth, the transition between the kinetic depth effect and true depth perception could be investigated. This transition forms the basis for defining a depth perception threshold for this type of a dynamic three dimensional image. Two experiments were performed using this approach. In the first experiment, ten undergraduate and graduate students (both male and female) observed the pattern during 24 one-minute trials. Eight different axial depth values were used, with three trials at each depth. The patterns were made to reverse rotation direction in a pseudo-random manner which was different for each trial presented to a given subject. The subject indicated the perceived direction of rotation by controlling a two position rotary switch, which was monitored by the computer. The total time during which the subject correctly tracked the rotation was integrated by the computer. The ratio of this correct tracking time to the total trial time was taken as a measure of the subject's ability to perceive the axial depth of the image. Plots of this ratio as a function of image depth are presented and discussed. The results averaged over all subjects produce a remarkably smooth curve, yielding a depth perception threshold of 2 mm for the subject population under the given experimental conditions. The characteristics of the stimulus were: (a) 2 cm high by 2 cm wide pattern; (b) Lissajous pattern frequency ratio of 6:1; (c) Axial distance from observer of 55 cm; (d) Wavelength of 533 nm (green); (e) Horizontal rotation axis; (f) Rotation period of 7 seconds; (g) Neutral background field illumination over a 40° come angle; (h) Image line width of 0.5 mm. The second experiment was a pilot experiment designed to investigate the effect of wavelength variations on this form of depth perception. A single subject was presented with a total of 192 one-minute trials at four wavelengths spanning the visible region (i.e., 6 one-minute trials for each of eight depth values at each wavelength). No significant wavelength dependence was observed in this pilot experiment.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectDepth perception.en_US
dc.subjectVisual perception.en_US
dc.subjectLissajous' curves.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineOptical Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorWheeler, L.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest8028522en_US
dc.identifier.oclc8697804en_US
dc.identifier.bibrecord.b13910322en_US
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