EFFECT OF RADIOLYTIC GAS ON NUCLEAR EXCURSIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/282061
Title:
EFFECT OF RADIOLYTIC GAS ON NUCLEAR EXCURSIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Author:
Forehand, Harry MacDonald, 1941-
Issue Date:
1981
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Knowledge of the consequences of a nuclear criticality accident in aqueous fissile solutions is necessary to design the processing equipment for such solutions. The data at the disposal of designers before 1967 was provided by actual critically accidents. In 1968, the Service d'Etudes de Criticite of the French Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique initiated a program of systematic experimental aqueous solution nuclear excursions which were initiated intentionally to obtain solution criticality accident data. This program was designated "Consequence Radiologiques d'un Accident de Criticite" (CRAC). Although not intended to study the evolution of a solution nuclear criticality accident, the Kinetic Experiment on Water Boiler (KEWB) demonstrated the dependence of the nuclear excursion on parameters such as solution temperature and radiolytic gas. Similarly, the CRAC program results indicated the excursion was governed by parameters such as the solution addition rate, initial neutron population, solute concentration, and thermal and radiolytic gas feedback. The energy deposited in a fissile solution is the sum of the energies contributed by the radiation sources. The majority of the energy is deposited by the fission fragments. One feature of the energy deposition is a commensurate increase in the system temperatures which affects the solution volume and thereby the neutron leakage probability. A second feature is the decomposition of the water molecule which results in release of H(,2) and O(,2) in the solution. Microbubbles are nucleated in the fissile solution by a localized thermal spike generated by a fission fragment. Initially, the microbubble contains a mixture of radiolytic gas and water vapor. Below the boiling point the vapor condenses quickly, leaving a gas microbubble. Unless the solution is supersaturated, the gas bubble will dissolve in a few microseconds. However, in a supersaturated solution the bubble will grow and produce negative feedback by increasing neutron leakage. The analysis for this study employs two mathematical models for the radiolytic gas feedback. One assumes the radiolytic gas concentration is a linear function of the energy release and the nucleation rate is a linear function of the power (Energy model). The other assumes a correlation between the system pressure and the radiolytic gas feedback (Pressure model). Both models have been incorporated into a space-independent kinetic computer code, MACKIN, while the pressure model was also incorporated into a space-dependent code, AZPAD, (Space-dependent model). The model incorporation provides a numerical tool with which to analyze a nuclear excursion in an aqueous fissile solution. The models have been successful in predicting the peak power, burst energy, and maximum system pressure for the first burst in both KEWB and CRAC experiments.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Nuclear reactor accidents -- Mathematical models.; Nuclear reactors -- Computer programs.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Nuclear Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Hetrick, David L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleEFFECT OF RADIOLYTIC GAS ON NUCLEAR EXCURSIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONSen_US
dc.creatorForehand, Harry MacDonald, 1941-en_US
dc.contributor.authorForehand, Harry MacDonald, 1941-en_US
dc.date.issued1981en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractKnowledge of the consequences of a nuclear criticality accident in aqueous fissile solutions is necessary to design the processing equipment for such solutions. The data at the disposal of designers before 1967 was provided by actual critically accidents. In 1968, the Service d'Etudes de Criticite of the French Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique initiated a program of systematic experimental aqueous solution nuclear excursions which were initiated intentionally to obtain solution criticality accident data. This program was designated "Consequence Radiologiques d'un Accident de Criticite" (CRAC). Although not intended to study the evolution of a solution nuclear criticality accident, the Kinetic Experiment on Water Boiler (KEWB) demonstrated the dependence of the nuclear excursion on parameters such as solution temperature and radiolytic gas. Similarly, the CRAC program results indicated the excursion was governed by parameters such as the solution addition rate, initial neutron population, solute concentration, and thermal and radiolytic gas feedback. The energy deposited in a fissile solution is the sum of the energies contributed by the radiation sources. The majority of the energy is deposited by the fission fragments. One feature of the energy deposition is a commensurate increase in the system temperatures which affects the solution volume and thereby the neutron leakage probability. A second feature is the decomposition of the water molecule which results in release of H(,2) and O(,2) in the solution. Microbubbles are nucleated in the fissile solution by a localized thermal spike generated by a fission fragment. Initially, the microbubble contains a mixture of radiolytic gas and water vapor. Below the boiling point the vapor condenses quickly, leaving a gas microbubble. Unless the solution is supersaturated, the gas bubble will dissolve in a few microseconds. However, in a supersaturated solution the bubble will grow and produce negative feedback by increasing neutron leakage. The analysis for this study employs two mathematical models for the radiolytic gas feedback. One assumes the radiolytic gas concentration is a linear function of the energy release and the nucleation rate is a linear function of the power (Energy model). The other assumes a correlation between the system pressure and the radiolytic gas feedback (Pressure model). Both models have been incorporated into a space-independent kinetic computer code, MACKIN, while the pressure model was also incorporated into a space-dependent code, AZPAD, (Space-dependent model). The model incorporation provides a numerical tool with which to analyze a nuclear excursion in an aqueous fissile solution. The models have been successful in predicting the peak power, burst energy, and maximum system pressure for the first burst in both KEWB and CRAC experiments.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectNuclear reactor accidents -- Mathematical models.en_US
dc.subjectNuclear reactors -- Computer programs.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineNuclear Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorHetrick, David L.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest8206892en_US
dc.identifier.oclc8710784en_US
dc.identifier.bibrecord.b1391747xen_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.