WAVEFRONT ERRORS PRODUCED BY MULTILAYER THIN-FILM OPTICAL COATINGS

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/281959
Title:
WAVEFRONT ERRORS PRODUCED BY MULTILAYER THIN-FILM OPTICAL COATINGS
Author:
Knowlden, Robert Edward
Issue Date:
1981
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
The mirrors used in high energy laser systems have at least two requirements that are uncommon in optical engineering: the reflectance of such mirrors must be very high (> 0.999), and the level of aberrations introduced by the mirrors is desired to be very low, typically λ/50 peak at 3.8 μ. The first requirement can be met by using multilayer thin film coatings, but such coatings can themselves produce aberrations in an optical system. One possible effect in multilayers is that such coatings produce an optical phase change on reflection that varies with angle of incidence and polarization of the illuminating beam. On a strongly curved mirror, such as an f/1.5 parabola used as a collimator, these effects may be appreciable for some coatings (e.g., λ/13 for a broadband all-dielectric reflector), but for an enhanced silver coating the effects are small, typically λ/400 of error that is almost entirely in the form of a small focus shift. If this same parabola is tested at its center of curvature, the coating-caused aberration due to angle of incidence effects are nearly zero (e.g., λ/50,000 for the broadband reflector that gave λ/13 when the parabola was used as a collimator). The wavefront errors due to coating nonuniformities are usually more important than angle of incidence effects. The simplest type of coating nonuniformity to analyze is a proportional error, i.e., an error where the ratios of the thicknesses of the layers are fixed but the thin film stack varies in total thickness across a surface. For a six-layer enhanced reflector for use at 3.8 μ, a 1% thickness error produces an approximate λ/100 wavefront error. At visible wavelengths, however, the aberration produced by such a coating error can be very different because of the optical interference nature of the coating. Means may be developed to estimate the performance of such an infrared reflector from measurements at visible wavelengths. If the errors produced by the coating are to be distinguished from those existing in the test due to misalignment or gravitational flexure of a large mirror, two or more wavelengths must be chosen. There are ambiguities in such a test that may be resolved by choice of an appropriate coating design or by using enough wavelengths in the visible, and both means have been studied. A technique was found where the infrared wavefront can be determined for a coating with proportional thickness errors if the coating prescription is known: interferograms of the mirror are made at three visible wavelengths, and the IR wavefront error due to the coating error is determined in a way that is insensitive to any errors caused by distortion of the substrate or even fairly large misalignments in the optical test of a mirror's figure.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Optical films.; Thin films, Multilayered.; Thin films -- Optical properties.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Optical Science
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Shannon, Robert

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleWAVEFRONT ERRORS PRODUCED BY MULTILAYER THIN-FILM OPTICAL COATINGSen_US
dc.creatorKnowlden, Robert Edwarden_US
dc.contributor.authorKnowlden, Robert Edwarden_US
dc.date.issued1981en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe mirrors used in high energy laser systems have at least two requirements that are uncommon in optical engineering: the reflectance of such mirrors must be very high (> 0.999), and the level of aberrations introduced by the mirrors is desired to be very low, typically λ/50 peak at 3.8 μ. The first requirement can be met by using multilayer thin film coatings, but such coatings can themselves produce aberrations in an optical system. One possible effect in multilayers is that such coatings produce an optical phase change on reflection that varies with angle of incidence and polarization of the illuminating beam. On a strongly curved mirror, such as an f/1.5 parabola used as a collimator, these effects may be appreciable for some coatings (e.g., λ/13 for a broadband all-dielectric reflector), but for an enhanced silver coating the effects are small, typically λ/400 of error that is almost entirely in the form of a small focus shift. If this same parabola is tested at its center of curvature, the coating-caused aberration due to angle of incidence effects are nearly zero (e.g., λ/50,000 for the broadband reflector that gave λ/13 when the parabola was used as a collimator). The wavefront errors due to coating nonuniformities are usually more important than angle of incidence effects. The simplest type of coating nonuniformity to analyze is a proportional error, i.e., an error where the ratios of the thicknesses of the layers are fixed but the thin film stack varies in total thickness across a surface. For a six-layer enhanced reflector for use at 3.8 μ, a 1% thickness error produces an approximate λ/100 wavefront error. At visible wavelengths, however, the aberration produced by such a coating error can be very different because of the optical interference nature of the coating. Means may be developed to estimate the performance of such an infrared reflector from measurements at visible wavelengths. If the errors produced by the coating are to be distinguished from those existing in the test due to misalignment or gravitational flexure of a large mirror, two or more wavelengths must be chosen. There are ambiguities in such a test that may be resolved by choice of an appropriate coating design or by using enough wavelengths in the visible, and both means have been studied. A technique was found where the infrared wavefront can be determined for a coating with proportional thickness errors if the coating prescription is known: interferograms of the mirror are made at three visible wavelengths, and the IR wavefront error due to the coating error is determined in a way that is insensitive to any errors caused by distortion of the substrate or even fairly large misalignments in the optical test of a mirror's figure.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectOptical films.en_US
dc.subjectThin films, Multilayered.en_US
dc.subjectThin films -- Optical properties.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineOptical Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorShannon, Roberten_US
dc.identifier.proquest8116708en_US
dc.identifier.oclc7940084en_US
dc.identifier.bibrecord.b13595969en_US
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