Electrokinetic management of nitrate movement in drip irrigated soils

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/280615
Title:
Electrokinetic management of nitrate movement in drip irrigated soils
Author:
Jia, Xinhua
Issue Date:
2004
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater has become a serious concern in many agricultural areas throughout the world. The major source of nitrate contamination is believed to be nitrogen fertilizer from agricultural fields. Best Management Practices have been developed to guide fertilizer use and minimize nitrogen losses, but do not address control of nitrate movement from the crop root zone. It is proposed that an in-situ method, electrokinetics (EK), could be used to control nitrate movement, retaining it near the root zone. Lysimeter experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of parallel electrodes on pH and nitrate distribution in field soils subjected to an electrical input. However, the expected results, increased nitrate retention, reduced sodium and calcium concentration and lower pH values near the anode, were not attained consistently in the test soils with and without Sudan grass. Small scale experiments in a vertical, partially saturated sandy soil column (25 cm height by 14 cm diameter) were conducted to evaluate the optimal EK parameters. After 80 mA current for 6 h the nitrate was retained near the anode, with the highest measured nitrate concentration of 7155 mg/L within 5 mm of the anode. The nitrate concentration at the cathode was 1/5 of the inflow solute concentration (221 mg/L). The pH was 11 near the cathode, 3.5 near the anode, and showed little changes in intermediate layers. The results demonstrate that in sandy soils nitrate can be strongly retained near the anode, even against gravity effect. As the percentage of illite clay in the soil increased, the EK effect decreased; due to the increase of fine clay particles both the transports of ions and the water were inhibited. The loam soil showed some increase in the nitrate concentration near the anode, but the clay soil showed no change. An increase of pH near the cathode was seen in all soils. The electrical potential analysis showed the sandy soil required the highest electrical potential 97.23 V, loam soil was 18.24 V and clay soil was 14.22 V.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Agriculture, Soil Science.; Engineering, Agricultural.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Larson, Dennis L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleElectrokinetic management of nitrate movement in drip irrigated soilsen_US
dc.creatorJia, Xinhuaen_US
dc.contributor.authorJia, Xinhuaen_US
dc.date.issued2004en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractNitrate contamination of surface and groundwater has become a serious concern in many agricultural areas throughout the world. The major source of nitrate contamination is believed to be nitrogen fertilizer from agricultural fields. Best Management Practices have been developed to guide fertilizer use and minimize nitrogen losses, but do not address control of nitrate movement from the crop root zone. It is proposed that an in-situ method, electrokinetics (EK), could be used to control nitrate movement, retaining it near the root zone. Lysimeter experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of parallel electrodes on pH and nitrate distribution in field soils subjected to an electrical input. However, the expected results, increased nitrate retention, reduced sodium and calcium concentration and lower pH values near the anode, were not attained consistently in the test soils with and without Sudan grass. Small scale experiments in a vertical, partially saturated sandy soil column (25 cm height by 14 cm diameter) were conducted to evaluate the optimal EK parameters. After 80 mA current for 6 h the nitrate was retained near the anode, with the highest measured nitrate concentration of 7155 mg/L within 5 mm of the anode. The nitrate concentration at the cathode was 1/5 of the inflow solute concentration (221 mg/L). The pH was 11 near the cathode, 3.5 near the anode, and showed little changes in intermediate layers. The results demonstrate that in sandy soils nitrate can be strongly retained near the anode, even against gravity effect. As the percentage of illite clay in the soil increased, the EK effect decreased; due to the increase of fine clay particles both the transports of ions and the water were inhibited. The loam soil showed some increase in the nitrate concentration near the anode, but the clay soil showed no change. An increase of pH near the cathode was seen in all soils. The electrical potential analysis showed the sandy soil required the highest electrical potential 97.23 V, loam soil was 18.24 V and clay soil was 14.22 V.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectAgriculture, Soil Science.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering, Agricultural.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineAgriculture and Biosystems Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorLarson, Dennis L.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest3145079en_US
dc.identifier.bibrecord.b47212755en_US
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