Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/279960
Title:
Middle Bronze-late Bronze transitional period in Palestine
Author:
Watanabe, Hiroaki
Issue Date:
2002
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
The end of the Middle Bronze Age in Palestine during the 16th century B.C.E. coincides with the expulsion of the Hyksos and the rise of the 18th Dynasty in Egypt. During the transitional period between the Middle Bronze Age and the Late Bronze Age in Palestine (circa. 16th∼15th century B.C.E.), many sites that had enjoyed prosperity in the Middle Bronze Age suffered destruction that was so devastating that they were left abandoned until the Late Bronze Age I period. What exactly happened to cause such prosperous sites to be destroyed and abandoned during the transitional period? To answer this question, we have surveyed Egyptian texts from Ahmose to Thutmosis III and ten key sites: Hazor, Megiddo, Shechem, Shiloh, Jericho, Gezer, Tell Beit Mirsim, Tell el-'Ajjul, Tell el-Far'ah (South) and Tell el-Dab'a (Avaris). The results are as follows: Destruction was observed at all sites with the exception of Megiddo, Tell el-Far'ah (South) and perhaps Tell el-Dab'a, whose graves were thoroughly plundered. There is a consistency in the date of destruction; it occurred in the MB/LB transition while Jericho was destroyed sometime in the Middle Bronze Age. Sites after destruction also show some consistency: They experienced overall collapse as gaps of occupation followed. The fact that Egyptians, led by Ahmose, plundered the graves of Avaris, suggests that the action was punitive. After establishing his campaign residence at Avaris, Ahmose planned to break the power of the Hyksos in southern Palestine and attacked Sharuhen. Thutmosis III's claim that he took 119 cities might not be an exaggeration: His siege of Megiddo lasted seven months, which would have allowed the Egyptians to dispatch auxiliary forces against other cities. After considering various causes that could account for destruction, we have concluded that the only one that can explain why destruction consistently occurred in the same phase, and why gaps of occupation consistently followed destruction, is the Egyptian campaigns.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Anthropology, Archaeology.; History, Middle Eastern.; History, Ancient.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Near Eastern Studies
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Dever, William G.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleMiddle Bronze-late Bronze transitional period in Palestineen_US
dc.creatorWatanabe, Hiroakien_US
dc.contributor.authorWatanabe, Hiroakien_US
dc.date.issued2002en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe end of the Middle Bronze Age in Palestine during the 16th century B.C.E. coincides with the expulsion of the Hyksos and the rise of the 18th Dynasty in Egypt. During the transitional period between the Middle Bronze Age and the Late Bronze Age in Palestine (circa. 16th∼15th century B.C.E.), many sites that had enjoyed prosperity in the Middle Bronze Age suffered destruction that was so devastating that they were left abandoned until the Late Bronze Age I period. What exactly happened to cause such prosperous sites to be destroyed and abandoned during the transitional period? To answer this question, we have surveyed Egyptian texts from Ahmose to Thutmosis III and ten key sites: Hazor, Megiddo, Shechem, Shiloh, Jericho, Gezer, Tell Beit Mirsim, Tell el-'Ajjul, Tell el-Far'ah (South) and Tell el-Dab'a (Avaris). The results are as follows: Destruction was observed at all sites with the exception of Megiddo, Tell el-Far'ah (South) and perhaps Tell el-Dab'a, whose graves were thoroughly plundered. There is a consistency in the date of destruction; it occurred in the MB/LB transition while Jericho was destroyed sometime in the Middle Bronze Age. Sites after destruction also show some consistency: They experienced overall collapse as gaps of occupation followed. The fact that Egyptians, led by Ahmose, plundered the graves of Avaris, suggests that the action was punitive. After establishing his campaign residence at Avaris, Ahmose planned to break the power of the Hyksos in southern Palestine and attacked Sharuhen. Thutmosis III's claim that he took 119 cities might not be an exaggeration: His siege of Megiddo lasted seven months, which would have allowed the Egyptians to dispatch auxiliary forces against other cities. After considering various causes that could account for destruction, we have concluded that the only one that can explain why destruction consistently occurred in the same phase, and why gaps of occupation consistently followed destruction, is the Egyptian campaigns.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectAnthropology, Archaeology.en_US
dc.subjectHistory, Middle Eastern.en_US
dc.subjectHistory, Ancient.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineNear Eastern Studiesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorDever, William G.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest3050322en_US
dc.identifier.bibrecord.b42724144en_US
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