Transfer of Microorganisms from Fomites to Hands and Risk Assessment of Contaminated and Disinfected Surfaces

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/272839
Title:
Transfer of Microorganisms from Fomites to Hands and Risk Assessment of Contaminated and Disinfected Surfaces
Author:
Lopez, Gerardo Urquijo
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release after 07-Jul-2013
Abstract:
It is now widely accepted that surface contamination plays an important role in the transmission of both respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in the domestic environment and community setting. The efficiency of transfer of a pathogen to the hand from a fomite is important in modeling transmission in microbial risk assessment models. The objective of this study was to use published literature to assess the role of fomites and hands in disease transmission, and to conduct fomite-to-finger transfer studies from various porous and nonporous fomites under different relative humidity condition using non-pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, MS2 coliphage, Bacillus thuringiensis spores, and poliovirus 1; to evaluate the persistence of bacteria and viruses on surfaces; to examine bacteria and virus transfer from treated surfaces; and to conduct a foodborne quantitative microbial risk assessment using Campylobacter jejuni from the data obtained in these studies. It was found that numerous factors influence the transfer efficiency of microorganisms, with moisture being the most important, with greater transfer under humid conditions. Other factors influencing transfer include drying time, contact time, pressure, friction, type of material, and porosity of the fomite. Percent transfer was greater under high relative humidity for both porous and nonporous surfaces. Most organisms on average had greater transfer under high relative humidity (40 - 65%) compared to low relative humidity (15 - 32%). Relative humidity and fomite type influenced the survival of all studied organisms; survival was greater on nonporous surfaces than those for porous surfaces. Test organisms were reduced up to 99.997% on the fomites after the surfaces were wiped with a disinfectant wipe. Microbial fomite-to-finger transfer from disinfectant wipe-treated surfaces were, lower than from non-treated surfaces. The disinfectant-wipe intervention reduced the risk of Campylobacter infection, illness, and death by 2 to 3 orders on all fomites. The disinfectant-wipe intervention reduced the annual risk of illness below the reported national average of diagnosed Campylobacteriosis cases 1.3E-04. This risk assessment demonstrates that the use of disinfectant wipes to decontaminate surface areas after chicken preparation reduces the risk of C. jejuni infections up to 99.2%.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Campylobacter jejuni; Disease Transmission; Fomites; Foodborne Microbial Risk Assessment; Staphylococcus aureus; Soil, Water & Environmental Science; Bacillus thuringiensis
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Soil, Water & Environmental Science
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Gerba, Charles P.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleTransfer of Microorganisms from Fomites to Hands and Risk Assessment of Contaminated and Disinfected Surfacesen_US
dc.creatorLopez, Gerardo Urquijoen_US
dc.contributor.authorLopez, Gerardo Urquijoen_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease after 07-Jul-2013en_US
dc.description.abstractIt is now widely accepted that surface contamination plays an important role in the transmission of both respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in the domestic environment and community setting. The efficiency of transfer of a pathogen to the hand from a fomite is important in modeling transmission in microbial risk assessment models. The objective of this study was to use published literature to assess the role of fomites and hands in disease transmission, and to conduct fomite-to-finger transfer studies from various porous and nonporous fomites under different relative humidity condition using non-pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, MS2 coliphage, Bacillus thuringiensis spores, and poliovirus 1; to evaluate the persistence of bacteria and viruses on surfaces; to examine bacteria and virus transfer from treated surfaces; and to conduct a foodborne quantitative microbial risk assessment using Campylobacter jejuni from the data obtained in these studies. It was found that numerous factors influence the transfer efficiency of microorganisms, with moisture being the most important, with greater transfer under humid conditions. Other factors influencing transfer include drying time, contact time, pressure, friction, type of material, and porosity of the fomite. Percent transfer was greater under high relative humidity for both porous and nonporous surfaces. Most organisms on average had greater transfer under high relative humidity (40 - 65%) compared to low relative humidity (15 - 32%). Relative humidity and fomite type influenced the survival of all studied organisms; survival was greater on nonporous surfaces than those for porous surfaces. Test organisms were reduced up to 99.997% on the fomites after the surfaces were wiped with a disinfectant wipe. Microbial fomite-to-finger transfer from disinfectant wipe-treated surfaces were, lower than from non-treated surfaces. The disinfectant-wipe intervention reduced the risk of Campylobacter infection, illness, and death by 2 to 3 orders on all fomites. The disinfectant-wipe intervention reduced the annual risk of illness below the reported national average of diagnosed Campylobacteriosis cases 1.3E-04. This risk assessment demonstrates that the use of disinfectant wipes to decontaminate surface areas after chicken preparation reduces the risk of C. jejuni infections up to 99.2%.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectCampylobacter jejunien_US
dc.subjectDisease Transmissionen_US
dc.subjectFomitesen_US
dc.subjectFoodborne Microbial Risk Assessmenten_US
dc.subjectStaphylococcus aureusen_US
dc.subjectSoil, Water & Environmental Scienceen_US
dc.subjectBacillus thuringiensisen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineSoil, Water & Environmental Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorGerba, Charles P.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberReynolds, Kelly A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPepper, Ian L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBright, Kelly R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGerba, Charles P.en_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.