Spatiotemporal and Phenological Pattens of Bird Migration and the Influence of Climate and Disturbance in the Madrean Sky Island Archipelago and North American Southwest

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/268552
Title:
Spatiotemporal and Phenological Pattens of Bird Migration and the Influence of Climate and Disturbance in the Madrean Sky Island Archipelago and North American Southwest
Author:
Kellermann, Jherime L.
Issue Date:
2012
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Distributional and ecological dynamics of Neotropical migratory birds at stopover sites where they maintain critical fat reserves during migration remain poorly understood in North American aridlands. I examined spatiotemporal abundance and timing of migrants relative to 1) upland and riparian habitats, 2) post-fire landscape mosaics, and 3) phenological synchrony and overlap of migration with tree flowering in southeastern Arizona's Madrean Archipelago (2009-2011), and 4) abundance, habitat breadth, and foraging substrates relative to tree flowering along the Colorado River in southwestern Arizona and northwestern Sonora, Mexico (2000-2003). I explored these dynamics relative to local weather conditions and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomena. In Madrean habitats, migrants showed three non-exclusive responses to high precipitation, snowfall, and low minimum temperatures associated with El Niño in 2010; migration timing adjustments, habitat shifts, and reduced abundances suggesting migration route shifts. Foliage-gleaning insectivores were most abundant in high severity burns, disproportionate to their availability, and decreased with time since fire (TSF); flycatchers were most abundant in low-moderate severity and increased with TSF. Migrant abundance increased with tree flowering. Phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in timing of these events. Overlap was lowest in 2011 in riparian habitat due to low willow (Salix goodinggii) flowering, despite high migrant abundance, but lowest in 2010 in montane conifer, despite high pollen cone production by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga meziesii), suggesting temperature limitation of insect abundance at high elevations, but water limitation of plant phenology at lower elevations. Along the Colorado River, migrant abundance and habitat breadth had inverse positive and negative quadratic relationships, respectively. Abundance increased with tree flowering, but only in 2003 during severe drought. Habitat breadth increased with monsoon precipitation. Foraging substrate use tracked flowering, shifting from willow to mesquite (Prosopis sp.); the overlap coincided with peak abundance and narrowest habitat breadth. Maintenance of diverse vegetation and post-fire landscape mosaics in the Madrean Archipelago should benefit migratory bird diversity. Flowering phenology likely provides large-scale cues of local-scale stopover habitat condition associated with interannual climatic variation. Management and restoration of upland habitats and large riparian woody perennials will be critical for migratory bird conservation in aridlands.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Madrean; phenology; stopover habitat; wildfire; Natural Resources; bird migration; ENSO
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Natural Resources
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Van Riper, Charles, III

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleSpatiotemporal and Phenological Pattens of Bird Migration and the Influence of Climate and Disturbance in the Madrean Sky Island Archipelago and North American Southwesten_US
dc.creatorKellermann, Jherime L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKellermann, Jherime L.en_US
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractDistributional and ecological dynamics of Neotropical migratory birds at stopover sites where they maintain critical fat reserves during migration remain poorly understood in North American aridlands. I examined spatiotemporal abundance and timing of migrants relative to 1) upland and riparian habitats, 2) post-fire landscape mosaics, and 3) phenological synchrony and overlap of migration with tree flowering in southeastern Arizona's Madrean Archipelago (2009-2011), and 4) abundance, habitat breadth, and foraging substrates relative to tree flowering along the Colorado River in southwestern Arizona and northwestern Sonora, Mexico (2000-2003). I explored these dynamics relative to local weather conditions and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomena. In Madrean habitats, migrants showed three non-exclusive responses to high precipitation, snowfall, and low minimum temperatures associated with El Niño in 2010; migration timing adjustments, habitat shifts, and reduced abundances suggesting migration route shifts. Foliage-gleaning insectivores were most abundant in high severity burns, disproportionate to their availability, and decreased with time since fire (TSF); flycatchers were most abundant in low-moderate severity and increased with TSF. Migrant abundance increased with tree flowering. Phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in timing of these events. Overlap was lowest in 2011 in riparian habitat due to low willow (Salix goodinggii) flowering, despite high migrant abundance, but lowest in 2010 in montane conifer, despite high pollen cone production by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga meziesii), suggesting temperature limitation of insect abundance at high elevations, but water limitation of plant phenology at lower elevations. Along the Colorado River, migrant abundance and habitat breadth had inverse positive and negative quadratic relationships, respectively. Abundance increased with tree flowering, but only in 2003 during severe drought. Habitat breadth increased with monsoon precipitation. Foraging substrate use tracked flowering, shifting from willow to mesquite (Prosopis sp.); the overlap coincided with peak abundance and narrowest habitat breadth. Maintenance of diverse vegetation and post-fire landscape mosaics in the Madrean Archipelago should benefit migratory bird diversity. Flowering phenology likely provides large-scale cues of local-scale stopover habitat condition associated with interannual climatic variation. Management and restoration of upland habitats and large riparian woody perennials will be critical for migratory bird conservation in aridlands.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectMadreanen_US
dc.subjectphenologyen_US
dc.subjectstopover habitaten_US
dc.subjectwildfireen_US
dc.subjectNatural Resourcesen_US
dc.subjectbird migrationen_US
dc.subjectENSOen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineNatural Resourcesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorVan Riper, Charles, IIIen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberKoprowski, Johnen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSkagen, Susanen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberVan Riper, Charles, IIIen_US
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