Ecology, Distribution, Toxigenicity and Diversity of Aflatoxin-Producing Fungal Communities in Maize Fields of Mexico and Interactions of these Fungi with Native Maize Landraces

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/265833
Title:
Ecology, Distribution, Toxigenicity and Diversity of Aflatoxin-Producing Fungal Communities in Maize Fields of Mexico and Interactions of these Fungi with Native Maize Landraces
Author:
Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro
Issue Date:
2012
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release after 03-Dec-2013
Abstract:
Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins most frequently associated with the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus flavus. These potent toxins pose serious health threats and their concentrations in foods are widely regulated. Maize, a critical staple of billions, is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins. Development of commercial maize hybrids with superior resistance to aflatoxin contamination has been sought for over 30 years without success. Analyses of native maize land races (MLRs) from Mexico revealed several accessions with significant resistance to both aflatoxin contamination and fungal reproduction. Physical barriers are important components of MLRs resistance. Traditional use of MLRs may reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. MLRs may contribute resistant genes of significant value in breeding for aflatoxin resistance. In Mexico, maize is produced from<10 to over 2,000 masl. Elevation had only minor influence on community compositions of aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with maize over three years in Sonora, Mexico. Most variation in community structure occurred between years. Dominant vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) differed among years but were detected in similar frequencies across four agroecological zones. Multiple locations and multiple years must be sampled to obtain realistic assessments of the most successful VCGs. Elevated frequencies of VCG YV150 throughout Sonora during 2006 led to investigate genetic diversity within this VCG using microsatellite loci. The 2006 increases were attributed to rapid increase of a single clone. Examination of YV150 isolates collected over 20 years in the US and Mexico revealed several haplotypes and two genetically distinct populations, which were composed of isolates containing only a population specific mating-type idiomorph. Microsatellite loci in each population were in gametic equilibrium. Gene flow between isolates with different idiomorphs was not detected. VCG YV36, to which the biocontrol agent AF36 belongs, was found to be endemic to Mexico. Microsatellite loci revealed diversity within YV36 from Mexico, but all isolates harbored the single nucleotide polymorphism in the aflatoxin polyketide synthase gene, pksA, that confers atoxigenicity to AF36. Three YV36 isolates also had deletions in pksA suggesting continued degradation. Presence of endemic YV36 isolates in Mexico may facilitate rapid regulatory approval of AF36 for use in prevention of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Mexico.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Host resistance; Maize land races; Vegetative compatibility groups; Plant Pathology; Aflatoxins; Biological control
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Plant Pathology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Cotty, Peter J.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleEcology, Distribution, Toxigenicity and Diversity of Aflatoxin-Producing Fungal Communities in Maize Fields of Mexico and Interactions of these Fungi with Native Maize Landracesen_US
dc.creatorOrtega-Beltran, Alejandroen_US
dc.contributor.authorOrtega-Beltran, Alejandroen_US
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease after 03-Dec-2013en_US
dc.description.abstractAflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins most frequently associated with the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus flavus. These potent toxins pose serious health threats and their concentrations in foods are widely regulated. Maize, a critical staple of billions, is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins. Development of commercial maize hybrids with superior resistance to aflatoxin contamination has been sought for over 30 years without success. Analyses of native maize land races (MLRs) from Mexico revealed several accessions with significant resistance to both aflatoxin contamination and fungal reproduction. Physical barriers are important components of MLRs resistance. Traditional use of MLRs may reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. MLRs may contribute resistant genes of significant value in breeding for aflatoxin resistance. In Mexico, maize is produced from<10 to over 2,000 masl. Elevation had only minor influence on community compositions of aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with maize over three years in Sonora, Mexico. Most variation in community structure occurred between years. Dominant vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) differed among years but were detected in similar frequencies across four agroecological zones. Multiple locations and multiple years must be sampled to obtain realistic assessments of the most successful VCGs. Elevated frequencies of VCG YV150 throughout Sonora during 2006 led to investigate genetic diversity within this VCG using microsatellite loci. The 2006 increases were attributed to rapid increase of a single clone. Examination of YV150 isolates collected over 20 years in the US and Mexico revealed several haplotypes and two genetically distinct populations, which were composed of isolates containing only a population specific mating-type idiomorph. Microsatellite loci in each population were in gametic equilibrium. Gene flow between isolates with different idiomorphs was not detected. VCG YV36, to which the biocontrol agent AF36 belongs, was found to be endemic to Mexico. Microsatellite loci revealed diversity within YV36 from Mexico, but all isolates harbored the single nucleotide polymorphism in the aflatoxin polyketide synthase gene, pksA, that confers atoxigenicity to AF36. Three YV36 isolates also had deletions in pksA suggesting continued degradation. Presence of endemic YV36 isolates in Mexico may facilitate rapid regulatory approval of AF36 for use in prevention of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Mexico.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectHost resistanceen_US
dc.subjectMaize land racesen_US
dc.subjectVegetative compatibility groupsen_US
dc.subjectPlant Pathologyen_US
dc.subjectAflatoxinsen_US
dc.subjectBiological controlen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePlant Pathologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorCotty, Peter J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPryor, Barry M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberOlsen, Mary W.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHunter, Martha S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCotty, Peter J.en_US
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