Fungal Community Diversity and Structure from Cave Mineral Surfaces and Bat Guano in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/255166
Title:
Fungal Community Diversity and Structure from Cave Mineral Surfaces and Bat Guano in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona
Author:
Vaughan, Michael Joe Steven
Issue Date:
2012
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Research regarding the distribution and structure of fungal communities in caves is lacking. The current study examines fungal communities in Kartchner Caverns, a mineralogically diverse cave located in the Whetstone Mountains, Arizona, USA. The first study examines culturable fungal diversity from speleothem surfaces. Twenty-one fungal genera represented by 43 genotypes and 53 distinct morphological taxonomic units (MTU) were recovered from 15 speleothems. Analysis of DGGE profiles indicated a significant effect of sampling site on community structure. The second study examined fungal diversity from speleothem and rock wall surfaces using the 454 FLX Titanium sequencing platform using the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) as a genetic marker. Fungal diversity was estimated and compared between speleothem and rock wall surfaces and its variation with distance from the natural entrance of the cave was quantified. Effects of environmental factors and nutrient concentrations in speleothem drip water at different sample sites on fungal diversity were also examined. Sequencing revealed 2219 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 95% similarity. Speleothems supported a higher fungal richness and diversity than rock walls, but community membership and the taxonomic distribution of fungal OTUs did not differ significantly. OTU richness and diversity were negatively correlated with distance from the natural cave entrance. Community membership and taxonomic distribution of fungal OTUs differed significantly between the front and back of the cave. There was no observed effect of drip water nutrient concentration on fungal community structure. The third study examined fungal community structure from bat guano over the course of a year. There was no significant difference in fungal OTU richness, diversity, or community membership and taxonomic affiliations among sampling times. There were no significant differences in nutrient concentrations of guano samples among sampling times. Nutrient concentration did have a significant effect on community structure, especially the level of nitrogen and calcium.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
cave mycology; environmental microbiology; fungal community; speleothem; Plant Pathology; bat guano; cave microbiology
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Plant Pathology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Pryor, Barry M.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleFungal Community Diversity and Structure from Cave Mineral Surfaces and Bat Guano in Kartchner Caverns, Arizonaen_US
dc.creatorVaughan, Michael Joe Stevenen_US
dc.contributor.authorVaughan, Michael Joe Stevenen_US
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractResearch regarding the distribution and structure of fungal communities in caves is lacking. The current study examines fungal communities in Kartchner Caverns, a mineralogically diverse cave located in the Whetstone Mountains, Arizona, USA. The first study examines culturable fungal diversity from speleothem surfaces. Twenty-one fungal genera represented by 43 genotypes and 53 distinct morphological taxonomic units (MTU) were recovered from 15 speleothems. Analysis of DGGE profiles indicated a significant effect of sampling site on community structure. The second study examined fungal diversity from speleothem and rock wall surfaces using the 454 FLX Titanium sequencing platform using the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) as a genetic marker. Fungal diversity was estimated and compared between speleothem and rock wall surfaces and its variation with distance from the natural entrance of the cave was quantified. Effects of environmental factors and nutrient concentrations in speleothem drip water at different sample sites on fungal diversity were also examined. Sequencing revealed 2219 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 95% similarity. Speleothems supported a higher fungal richness and diversity than rock walls, but community membership and the taxonomic distribution of fungal OTUs did not differ significantly. OTU richness and diversity were negatively correlated with distance from the natural cave entrance. Community membership and taxonomic distribution of fungal OTUs differed significantly between the front and back of the cave. There was no observed effect of drip water nutrient concentration on fungal community structure. The third study examined fungal community structure from bat guano over the course of a year. There was no significant difference in fungal OTU richness, diversity, or community membership and taxonomic affiliations among sampling times. There were no significant differences in nutrient concentrations of guano samples among sampling times. Nutrient concentration did have a significant effect on community structure, especially the level of nitrogen and calcium.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectcave mycologyen_US
dc.subjectenvironmental microbiologyen_US
dc.subjectfungal communityen_US
dc.subjectspeleothemen_US
dc.subjectPlant Pathologyen_US
dc.subjectbat guanoen_US
dc.subjectcave microbiologyen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePlant Pathologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorPryor, Barry M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBronstein, Judith L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberOrbach, Marc J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCotty, Peter J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberArnold, Anne Elizabethen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPryor, Barry M.en_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.