Fundamentals and Application of Porous Media Filtration for the Removal of Nanoparticles from Industrial Wastewater

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/255157
Title:
Fundamentals and Application of Porous Media Filtration for the Removal of Nanoparticles from Industrial Wastewater
Author:
Rottman, Jeffrey J.
Issue Date:
2012
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials presents concerns as some nanoparticles appear to be harmful to both human health and the environment. Effective treatment methods are required to remove problematic nanoparticles from (waste)water streams. Porous media filtration, commonly used for the removal of particulate matter, shows promise for nanoparticle treatment. The goal of this work is to investigate the potential of porous media filtration for the abatement of nanoparticles from aqueous waste streams. To this end, an automated method was developed that allows real-time and in-situ monitoring of nanoparticle transport and retention in porous media using online measurement of UV-visible absorbance or fluorescence. Development of fluorescent-core nano-silica (n-SiO₂) in controllable sizes provided an excellent tracer for nanoparticle transport in porous media. Measurement of n-SiO₂ by destructive techniques is complicated by high natural Si background levels. Fluorescence monitoring enables real-time measurement, facilitating rapid evaluation of n-SiO₂ transport. Synthesized n-SiO₂ remain in their primary sizes making an evaluation of the behavioral change of particles due to transition into the "nano" range possible. A comparison of the role of particle size on transport in porous media displayed the importance of particle number concentration as the dominance of site-specific adsorption may be obscured by simple mass concentration evaluation.T he effectiveness of different bed materials, namely, sand, activated carbon (AC), and diatomaceous earth (DE), for the removal of TiO₂ nanoparticles (n-TiO₂) from aqueous streams was investigated. DE proved promising for n-TiO₂ capture shown by its high bed capacity (33.8 mg TiO₂ g⁻¹(medium)) compared to AC (0.23 mg TiO₂ g⁻¹(medium)) or sand (0.004 mg TiO₂ g⁻¹(medium)). The presence of organic and synthetic contaminants produced varying effects on n-TiO₂ retention, mostly due to either enhanced electrostatic or steric interactions. Application of a process simulator combining physical straining with site-specific interactions, delineating physisorption from chemisorption and diffusion limited interactions, enabled the accurate fit of n-TiO₂ transport in sand, AC and DE. The fitting process revealed the advantage of DE due to increased physisorption and physical straining of n-TiO₂. Modeling of this system afforded the elucidation of controlling retention mechanisms and provides a basis for future scaling and system design.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Porous Media; Sand; Silicon Dioxide; Titanium Dioxide; Chemical Engineering; Diatomaceous Earth; Nanoparticle
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Chemical Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Shadman, Farhang

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleFundamentals and Application of Porous Media Filtration for the Removal of Nanoparticles from Industrial Wastewateren_US
dc.creatorRottman, Jeffrey J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRottman, Jeffrey J.en_US
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractIncreasing use of engineered nanomaterials presents concerns as some nanoparticles appear to be harmful to both human health and the environment. Effective treatment methods are required to remove problematic nanoparticles from (waste)water streams. Porous media filtration, commonly used for the removal of particulate matter, shows promise for nanoparticle treatment. The goal of this work is to investigate the potential of porous media filtration for the abatement of nanoparticles from aqueous waste streams. To this end, an automated method was developed that allows real-time and in-situ monitoring of nanoparticle transport and retention in porous media using online measurement of UV-visible absorbance or fluorescence. Development of fluorescent-core nano-silica (n-SiO₂) in controllable sizes provided an excellent tracer for nanoparticle transport in porous media. Measurement of n-SiO₂ by destructive techniques is complicated by high natural Si background levels. Fluorescence monitoring enables real-time measurement, facilitating rapid evaluation of n-SiO₂ transport. Synthesized n-SiO₂ remain in their primary sizes making an evaluation of the behavioral change of particles due to transition into the "nano" range possible. A comparison of the role of particle size on transport in porous media displayed the importance of particle number concentration as the dominance of site-specific adsorption may be obscured by simple mass concentration evaluation.T he effectiveness of different bed materials, namely, sand, activated carbon (AC), and diatomaceous earth (DE), for the removal of TiO₂ nanoparticles (n-TiO₂) from aqueous streams was investigated. DE proved promising for n-TiO₂ capture shown by its high bed capacity (33.8 mg TiO₂ g⁻¹(medium)) compared to AC (0.23 mg TiO₂ g⁻¹(medium)) or sand (0.004 mg TiO₂ g⁻¹(medium)). The presence of organic and synthetic contaminants produced varying effects on n-TiO₂ retention, mostly due to either enhanced electrostatic or steric interactions. Application of a process simulator combining physical straining with site-specific interactions, delineating physisorption from chemisorption and diffusion limited interactions, enabled the accurate fit of n-TiO₂ transport in sand, AC and DE. The fitting process revealed the advantage of DE due to increased physisorption and physical straining of n-TiO₂. Modeling of this system afforded the elucidation of controlling retention mechanisms and provides a basis for future scaling and system design.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectPorous Mediaen_US
dc.subjectSanden_US
dc.subjectSilicon Dioxideen_US
dc.subjectTitanium Dioxideen_US
dc.subjectChemical Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectDiatomaceous Earthen_US
dc.subjectNanoparticleen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemical Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorShadman, Farhangen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSierra-Alvarez, Reyesen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberAspinwall, Craig A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberShadman, Farhangen_US
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