Identification of Cathepsin B and L as Novel Uva Targets Upstream of Cutaneous Lysosomal-Autophagic Dysregulation

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/228173
Title:
Identification of Cathepsin B and L as Novel Uva Targets Upstream of Cutaneous Lysosomal-Autophagic Dysregulation
Author:
Lamore, Sarah Diane
Issue Date:
2012
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Chronic exposure to solar UVA plays a causative role in skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Guided by exploratory difference-in-gel-electrophoresis (DIGE)-proteomics, we identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and cathepsin L as novel UVA-targets undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction. In human skin fibroblasts, exposure to noncytotoxic doses of chronic UVA (9.9 J/cm ², twice a week, 3 weeks) caused pronounced photooxidative impairment of cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity suppressed by antioxidant intervention. Western blot analysis revealed extensive 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE) modification of cathepsin B in UVA-exposed fibroblasts. Consistent with lysosomal impairment, accumulation of cellular autofluorescent material colocalizing with lysosomes was observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, and extensive deposition of lipofuscin was detectable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Lysosomal expansion was further evidenced by increased immunodetection of lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (Lamp-1) and Lysotracker-based flow cytometric analysis. While lysosomal membrane integrity remained intact, autophagic blockade was suggested by accumulation of cellular protein levels of LC3-II and p62 (sequestosome 1) in UVA-exposed fibroblasts. Furthermore, UVA-exposure modulated transcriptional levels of p62 (sequestosome 1, SQSTM1), α-synuclein (SNCA), and transglutaminase-2 (TGM2). Strikingly, pharmacological cathepsin B/L inhibition using CA074Me mimicked UVA-induced accumulation of lipofuscin and autophagic-lysosomal proteins (Lamp-1, LC3-II, and p62), as well as changes at the transcriptional levels. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring protein levels of Lamp-1, LC3-II, and p62, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Similarly, TEM revealed massive accumulation of lipofuscin-containing lysosomal vesicles in fibroblasts only after CTSB/CTSL-double knockdown. Taken together, our data indicate for the first time that UVA impairs lysosomal function causing autophagic-lysosomal alterations downstream of cathepsin B/L enzymatic inactivation. This work provides evidence for a heretofore unrecognized 'double-hit' mechanism of UVA skin photodamage where primary photo-oxidative insult occurs simultaneously with impaired clearance of damaged molecules and organelles downstream of dual inactivation of cathepsin B and L.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
lysosome; photodamage; skin; Ultraviolet A; Pharmacology & Toxicology; cathepsin; fibroblast
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Pharmacology & Toxicology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Wondrak, Georg T.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleIdentification of Cathepsin B and L as Novel Uva Targets Upstream of Cutaneous Lysosomal-Autophagic Dysregulationen_US
dc.creatorLamore, Sarah Dianeen_US
dc.contributor.authorLamore, Sarah Dianeen_US
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractChronic exposure to solar UVA plays a causative role in skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Guided by exploratory difference-in-gel-electrophoresis (DIGE)-proteomics, we identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and cathepsin L as novel UVA-targets undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction. In human skin fibroblasts, exposure to noncytotoxic doses of chronic UVA (9.9 J/cm ², twice a week, 3 weeks) caused pronounced photooxidative impairment of cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity suppressed by antioxidant intervention. Western blot analysis revealed extensive 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE) modification of cathepsin B in UVA-exposed fibroblasts. Consistent with lysosomal impairment, accumulation of cellular autofluorescent material colocalizing with lysosomes was observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, and extensive deposition of lipofuscin was detectable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Lysosomal expansion was further evidenced by increased immunodetection of lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (Lamp-1) and Lysotracker-based flow cytometric analysis. While lysosomal membrane integrity remained intact, autophagic blockade was suggested by accumulation of cellular protein levels of LC3-II and p62 (sequestosome 1) in UVA-exposed fibroblasts. Furthermore, UVA-exposure modulated transcriptional levels of p62 (sequestosome 1, SQSTM1), α-synuclein (SNCA), and transglutaminase-2 (TGM2). Strikingly, pharmacological cathepsin B/L inhibition using CA074Me mimicked UVA-induced accumulation of lipofuscin and autophagic-lysosomal proteins (Lamp-1, LC3-II, and p62), as well as changes at the transcriptional levels. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring protein levels of Lamp-1, LC3-II, and p62, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Similarly, TEM revealed massive accumulation of lipofuscin-containing lysosomal vesicles in fibroblasts only after CTSB/CTSL-double knockdown. Taken together, our data indicate for the first time that UVA impairs lysosomal function causing autophagic-lysosomal alterations downstream of cathepsin B/L enzymatic inactivation. This work provides evidence for a heretofore unrecognized 'double-hit' mechanism of UVA skin photodamage where primary photo-oxidative insult occurs simultaneously with impaired clearance of damaged molecules and organelles downstream of dual inactivation of cathepsin B and L.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectlysosomeen_US
dc.subjectphotodamageen_US
dc.subjectskinen_US
dc.subjectUltraviolet Aen_US
dc.subjectPharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
dc.subjectcathepsinen_US
dc.subjectfibroblasten_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorWondrak, Georg T.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSmith, Catharineen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMonks, Terrenceen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCherrington, Nathanen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWondrak, Georg T.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberJacobson, Elaineen_US
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