Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/223381
Title:
Malus Diversity in Wild and Agricultural Ecosystems
Author:
Routson, Kanin Josif
Issue Date:
2012
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release after 28-Oct-2012
Abstract:
Human-induced land degradation and climate change can reduce agricultural productivity and increase susceptibility to food shortages at local and global scales. Planting perennial crop species, such as fruit and nut crops, may be an intervention strategy because of their beneficial contributions to sustainable agriculture and human nutrition. Many perennial temperate fruit and nut species are however, particularly vulnerable to frost events, drought, insufficient chill hours, and disease and insect outbreaks. Modifying these species to yield harvests under a wider range of biotic and abiotic conditions may increase the value and long-term viability of perennials in agroecosystems. This dissertation examines adaptation and ecogeography in temperate perennial fruit crops, using apple (Malus sensu lato) as an example for case studies. The resilience of feral domestic apple trees in abandoned farmstead orchards throughout the southwestern U.S. indicates plasticity in adapting to local environmental conditions. Dendrochronology reveals these trees tend to persist where they have access to supplemental water, either as shallow groundwater or irrigation. While domestic apples are cultivated under a range of growing conditions, wild relatives of agricultural crops may further expand the cultivable range of the species. Crop wild relatives are species closely related to agricultural species, including progenitors that may contribute beneficial traits to crops. Sampling the genetic variation in crop wild relatives may benefit from ecological genetics and GIS theory to reveal genetic structure. The Pacific crabapple is an example of a wild apple relative that may contain genetic variation useful in apple breeding. Species distribution modeling of the Pacific crabapple identifies a narrow climatic window of suitable habitat along the northern Pacific coast, and genetic fingerprinting reveals a highly admixed genetic structure with little evidence of natural or cultural selection. While the moist coastal Pacific Northwest is not necessarily characteristic of many apple-growing regions, the species may have useful adaptations transferable to domestic apples. Genetic resources offer a promising source of raw material for adapting crops to future agricultural environments; their characterization, conservation, and use may offer important contributions to adaptation and use of perennial crops in agro-ecosystems.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Crop Wild Relatives; Genetic Diversity; Pacific Crabapple; Arid Lands Resource Sciences; Adaptation; Apple
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Arid Lands Resource Sciences
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Nabhan, Gary P.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleMalus Diversity in Wild and Agricultural Ecosystemsen_US
dc.creatorRoutson, Kanin Josifen_US
dc.contributor.authorRoutson, Kanin Josifen_US
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease after 28-Oct-2012en_US
dc.description.abstractHuman-induced land degradation and climate change can reduce agricultural productivity and increase susceptibility to food shortages at local and global scales. Planting perennial crop species, such as fruit and nut crops, may be an intervention strategy because of their beneficial contributions to sustainable agriculture and human nutrition. Many perennial temperate fruit and nut species are however, particularly vulnerable to frost events, drought, insufficient chill hours, and disease and insect outbreaks. Modifying these species to yield harvests under a wider range of biotic and abiotic conditions may increase the value and long-term viability of perennials in agroecosystems. This dissertation examines adaptation and ecogeography in temperate perennial fruit crops, using apple (Malus sensu lato) as an example for case studies. The resilience of feral domestic apple trees in abandoned farmstead orchards throughout the southwestern U.S. indicates plasticity in adapting to local environmental conditions. Dendrochronology reveals these trees tend to persist where they have access to supplemental water, either as shallow groundwater or irrigation. While domestic apples are cultivated under a range of growing conditions, wild relatives of agricultural crops may further expand the cultivable range of the species. Crop wild relatives are species closely related to agricultural species, including progenitors that may contribute beneficial traits to crops. Sampling the genetic variation in crop wild relatives may benefit from ecological genetics and GIS theory to reveal genetic structure. The Pacific crabapple is an example of a wild apple relative that may contain genetic variation useful in apple breeding. Species distribution modeling of the Pacific crabapple identifies a narrow climatic window of suitable habitat along the northern Pacific coast, and genetic fingerprinting reveals a highly admixed genetic structure with little evidence of natural or cultural selection. While the moist coastal Pacific Northwest is not necessarily characteristic of many apple-growing regions, the species may have useful adaptations transferable to domestic apples. Genetic resources offer a promising source of raw material for adapting crops to future agricultural environments; their characterization, conservation, and use may offer important contributions to adaptation and use of perennial crops in agro-ecosystems.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectCrop Wild Relativesen_US
dc.subjectGenetic Diversityen_US
dc.subjectPacific Crabappleen_US
dc.subjectArid Lands Resource Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectAdaptationen_US
dc.subjectAppleen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineArid Lands Resource Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorNabhan, Gary P.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberVolk, Gayle M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSmith, Steven E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberRobbins, Paul F.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMarsh, Stuart E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberNabhan, Gary P.en_US
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