Oxidative Removal of Implanted Photoresists and Barrier Metals in Semiconductor Processing

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/217074
Title:
Oxidative Removal of Implanted Photoresists and Barrier Metals in Semiconductor Processing
Author:
Govindarajan, Rajkumar
Issue Date:
2012
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Chemical systems containing oxidants are widely used at various stages in semiconductor processing, particularly for wet cleaning and polishing applications. This dissertation presents a series of studies related to oxidative removal of materials in the Front-End-Of-Line (FEOL) and Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) processes during IC fabrication. In the first part of this study, stripping of photoresists exposed to high dose of ions (1E16 As/cm²) was investigated in activated hydrogen peroxide systems. Stripping of photoresists (PR) exposed to high dose (>1E15/cm²) ion beams is one of the most challenging steps in FEOL processing. This is due to unreactive crust layer that forms on the resist surface during ion implantation. The use of hydrogen peroxide systems activated by metal ion or UV light, for disrupting crust formed on deep UV resist to enable complete removal of crust as well as underlying photoresist was investigated. A systematic evaluation of variables such as hydrogen peroxide and metal ion concentration, UV intensity, temperature and time was conducted and an optimal formulation capable of attacking the crust was developed. A two step process involving pretreatment with activated hydrogen peroxide solution, followed by treatment with sulfuric acid-hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM) was developed for complete removal of crusted resist films. In the second part of this study, electrochemically enhanced abrasive removal of Ta/TaN films was investigated in solutions containing 2,5 dihydroxy benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and potassium iodate (KIO₃). This method known as Electrically-assisted Chemical Mechanical Planarization (ECMP) is generating a lot of interest in IC manufacturing. Ta/TaN films were abraded at low pressures (<0.5 psi) on a polyurethane pad under galvanostatic conditions. The effect of variables including pH, KIO3 concentration, and current density has been explored. In the optimized formulation, tantalum and tantalum nitride removal rates of ~170 A⁰/min and ~200 A⁰/min, respectively have been obtained at a current density of 1 mA/cm². The use of benzotriazole as a copper inhibitor was required to obtain Ta to Cu selectivity of 0.8:1. Additionally, the nature of the oxide film formed on tantalum during the electrochemical abrasion process was characterized.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
FEOL; Galvanic Corrosion; HDIS; Semicondutor Processing; Materials Science & Engineering; BEOL; ECMP
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Materials Science & Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Raghavan, Srini

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleOxidative Removal of Implanted Photoresists and Barrier Metals in Semiconductor Processingen_US
dc.creatorGovindarajan, Rajkumaren_US
dc.contributor.authorGovindarajan, Rajkumaren_US
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractChemical systems containing oxidants are widely used at various stages in semiconductor processing, particularly for wet cleaning and polishing applications. This dissertation presents a series of studies related to oxidative removal of materials in the Front-End-Of-Line (FEOL) and Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) processes during IC fabrication. In the first part of this study, stripping of photoresists exposed to high dose of ions (1E16 As/cm²) was investigated in activated hydrogen peroxide systems. Stripping of photoresists (PR) exposed to high dose (>1E15/cm²) ion beams is one of the most challenging steps in FEOL processing. This is due to unreactive crust layer that forms on the resist surface during ion implantation. The use of hydrogen peroxide systems activated by metal ion or UV light, for disrupting crust formed on deep UV resist to enable complete removal of crust as well as underlying photoresist was investigated. A systematic evaluation of variables such as hydrogen peroxide and metal ion concentration, UV intensity, temperature and time was conducted and an optimal formulation capable of attacking the crust was developed. A two step process involving pretreatment with activated hydrogen peroxide solution, followed by treatment with sulfuric acid-hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM) was developed for complete removal of crusted resist films. In the second part of this study, electrochemically enhanced abrasive removal of Ta/TaN films was investigated in solutions containing 2,5 dihydroxy benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and potassium iodate (KIO₃). This method known as Electrically-assisted Chemical Mechanical Planarization (ECMP) is generating a lot of interest in IC manufacturing. Ta/TaN films were abraded at low pressures (<0.5 psi) on a polyurethane pad under galvanostatic conditions. The effect of variables including pH, KIO3 concentration, and current density has been explored. In the optimized formulation, tantalum and tantalum nitride removal rates of ~170 A⁰/min and ~200 A⁰/min, respectively have been obtained at a current density of 1 mA/cm². The use of benzotriazole as a copper inhibitor was required to obtain Ta to Cu selectivity of 0.8:1. Additionally, the nature of the oxide film formed on tantalum during the electrochemical abrasion process was characterized.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectFEOLen_US
dc.subjectGalvanic Corrosionen_US
dc.subjectHDISen_US
dc.subjectSemicondutor Processingen_US
dc.subjectMaterials Science & Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectBEOLen_US
dc.subjectECMPen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineMaterials Science & Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorRaghavan, Srinien_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLucas, Pierreen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMuralidharan, Krishnaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBrown, Ianen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberRaghavan, Srinien_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.