Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/203440
Title:
Decoding the Language of Hypoglossal Motor Control
Author:
Laine, Christopher
Issue Date:
2011
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
To effect movement, the central nervous system must appropriately coordinate the activities of pools of motoneurons (MNs), the cells which control muscle fibers. Sources of neural drive are often distributed to many MNs of a pool, and thus can synchronize the activities of targeted MNs. In this thesis, synchronization among MNs is used to investigate the strength, temporal progression, and anatomical distribution of neural drive to the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN), which controls muscles of the tongue. The HMN is an ideal target for such an investigation because it processes a host of functionally diverse inputs, such as those related to breathing, speaking, and swallowing. Study 1 characterizes motor unit (MU) synchronization within and across bellies of the human genioglossus (GG) muscle when MUs are activated by cortical drive (during voluntary tongue protrusion) or by automatic, brainstem-mediated drive (during rest breathing). We show that voluntary tongue protrusion synchronizes MU spike timing and firing rates within but not across bellies of the GG, whereas during rest breathing, MU firing rates are moderately synchronized both within and across muscle bellies. Study 2 documents respiratory-related synchronization of MU activities in muscles of the tongue and respiratory pump using an anesthetized rat model. The results of this study indicate that upper airway and respiratory pump MN pools share a low frequency respiratory-related drive, but that higher frequency (>8 Hz) synchronization is strongest in MU pairs of the chest-wall. Finally, Study 3 examines the potential for GG multi-unit and single MU activities to be entrained by cortical input. We show that during voluntary tongue protrusion, cortical oscillations in the 15-40 Hz range weakly synchronize MU population activity, and that EEG oscillations in this range intermittently influence the spike timing of individual GG MUs. These studies are the first to characterize MU synchronization by different sources of neural input to the HMN and establish a broad foundation for further investigation of hypoglossal motor control.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
genioglossus; hypoglossal; motoneuron; Motor Unit; Physiological Sciences; EEG; EMG
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Physiological Sciences
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Bailey, E. Fiona

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleDecoding the Language of Hypoglossal Motor Controlen_US
dc.creatorLaine, Christopheren_US
dc.contributor.authorLaine, Christopheren_US
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractTo effect movement, the central nervous system must appropriately coordinate the activities of pools of motoneurons (MNs), the cells which control muscle fibers. Sources of neural drive are often distributed to many MNs of a pool, and thus can synchronize the activities of targeted MNs. In this thesis, synchronization among MNs is used to investigate the strength, temporal progression, and anatomical distribution of neural drive to the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN), which controls muscles of the tongue. The HMN is an ideal target for such an investigation because it processes a host of functionally diverse inputs, such as those related to breathing, speaking, and swallowing. Study 1 characterizes motor unit (MU) synchronization within and across bellies of the human genioglossus (GG) muscle when MUs are activated by cortical drive (during voluntary tongue protrusion) or by automatic, brainstem-mediated drive (during rest breathing). We show that voluntary tongue protrusion synchronizes MU spike timing and firing rates within but not across bellies of the GG, whereas during rest breathing, MU firing rates are moderately synchronized both within and across muscle bellies. Study 2 documents respiratory-related synchronization of MU activities in muscles of the tongue and respiratory pump using an anesthetized rat model. The results of this study indicate that upper airway and respiratory pump MN pools share a low frequency respiratory-related drive, but that higher frequency (>8 Hz) synchronization is strongest in MU pairs of the chest-wall. Finally, Study 3 examines the potential for GG multi-unit and single MU activities to be entrained by cortical input. We show that during voluntary tongue protrusion, cortical oscillations in the 15-40 Hz range weakly synchronize MU population activity, and that EEG oscillations in this range intermittently influence the spike timing of individual GG MUs. These studies are the first to characterize MU synchronization by different sources of neural input to the HMN and establish a broad foundation for further investigation of hypoglossal motor control.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectgenioglossusen_US
dc.subjecthypoglossalen_US
dc.subjectmotoneuronen_US
dc.subjectMotor Uniten_US
dc.subjectPhysiological Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectEEGen_US
dc.subjectEMGen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePhysiological Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorBailey, E. Fionaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLevine, Richarden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFregosi, Ralphen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFellous, Jean-Marcen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBailey, E. Fionaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFuglevand, Andrewen_US
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