Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/201494
Title:
Sleep Disturbance, Cognition, and Behavior in Down Syndrome
Author:
Breslin, Jennifer H.
Issue Date:
2011
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Children and adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of sleep problems, including Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). They are also likely to have deficits in neuropsychological tasks tapping prefrontal function and hippocampal function. There has recent revival of literature suggesting an active role for sleep in memory consolidation and problem-solving in both children and adults. Furthermore, given the cognitive and behavioral sequellae of OSAS in typically developing children it is logical to test if the hypoxemia and increased sleep fragmentation, the two major pathophysiological mechanisms of OSAS, seen in children with DS and OSAS may exacerbate learning or behavior disorders.Forty children with DS aged 7-18 were administered the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB) for DS (Edgin et al., 2010), and in-home ambulatory polysomnography. Their parents were asked to complete several questionnaires assessing their child's sleep and behavior. Seventy-seven percent (n = 40) of our sample met criteria for pediatric sleep apnea (AHI>1.5), and the mean apnea hypoppnea index (AHI) was 8.4 events per hour. Our sample had a mean arousal index of 10.3, a respiratory arousal index of 3.2, and a SaO2 nadir of 86.9%. Over 70% of our sample had a SaO2 nadir below 90%. We examined the relationship between OSAS severity and cognitive and behavioral outcomes. We found that children with DS with a lower apnea hypopnea index (AHI) attained a greater number of stages on the CANTAB PAL task compared to chronologically age-matched children with higher AHI, and the variance in performance was partially explained by sleep fragmentation (i.e., the arousal index) and experimenter-rated "attention" but not hypoxemia. In addition, we also found that the low apnea group showed a trend toward outperforming the high apnea group on the KBIT-II Verbal IQ scale and DAS-2 Pattern Construction subtest.These findings have important clinical implications. First, these results suggest that early screening for OSAS in DS is important, as OSAS severity seems to explain some of the variance in cognitive functioning. Second, these findings suggest that an early intervention for OSAS might be warranted.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Down syndrome; Sleep; Psychology; Apnea; Cognition
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Psychology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn; Ryan, T. Lee

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleSleep Disturbance, Cognition, and Behavior in Down Syndromeen_US
dc.creatorBreslin, Jennifer H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBreslin, Jennifer H.en_US
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractChildren and adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of sleep problems, including Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). They are also likely to have deficits in neuropsychological tasks tapping prefrontal function and hippocampal function. There has recent revival of literature suggesting an active role for sleep in memory consolidation and problem-solving in both children and adults. Furthermore, given the cognitive and behavioral sequellae of OSAS in typically developing children it is logical to test if the hypoxemia and increased sleep fragmentation, the two major pathophysiological mechanisms of OSAS, seen in children with DS and OSAS may exacerbate learning or behavior disorders.Forty children with DS aged 7-18 were administered the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB) for DS (Edgin et al., 2010), and in-home ambulatory polysomnography. Their parents were asked to complete several questionnaires assessing their child's sleep and behavior. Seventy-seven percent (n = 40) of our sample met criteria for pediatric sleep apnea (AHI>1.5), and the mean apnea hypoppnea index (AHI) was 8.4 events per hour. Our sample had a mean arousal index of 10.3, a respiratory arousal index of 3.2, and a SaO2 nadir of 86.9%. Over 70% of our sample had a SaO2 nadir below 90%. We examined the relationship between OSAS severity and cognitive and behavioral outcomes. We found that children with DS with a lower apnea hypopnea index (AHI) attained a greater number of stages on the CANTAB PAL task compared to chronologically age-matched children with higher AHI, and the variance in performance was partially explained by sleep fragmentation (i.e., the arousal index) and experimenter-rated "attention" but not hypoxemia. In addition, we also found that the low apnea group showed a trend toward outperforming the high apnea group on the KBIT-II Verbal IQ scale and DAS-2 Pattern Construction subtest.These findings have important clinical implications. First, these results suggest that early screening for OSAS in DS is important, as OSAS severity seems to explain some of the variance in cognitive functioning. Second, these findings suggest that an early intervention for OSAS might be warranted.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectDown syndromeen_US
dc.subjectSleepen_US
dc.subjectPsychologyen_US
dc.subjectApneaen_US
dc.subjectCognitionen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePsychologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorBootzin, Richard R.en_US
dc.contributor.advisorNadel, Lynnen_US
dc.contributor.advisorRyan, T. Leeen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberAllen, John J.B.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPerfect, Michelle M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBootzin, Richard R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberNadel, Lynnen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberRyan, T. Leeen_US
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