Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/197276
Title:
Evaluation of Chemical Controls of Lygus hesperus in Arizona
Author:
Ellsworth, Peter C.
Affiliation:
The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center
Issue Date:
1999
Publisher:
College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ)
Journal:
Cotton: A College of Agriculture Report
Abstract:
When other means fail to avoid damaging levels of an insect pest population, chemical control becomes necessary. Chemical control is a variable farm input which should be optimized to reduce economic damage by the pest while maximizing profit and minimizing exposure to secondary pest outbreaks, pest resurgence, and risks of insecticide resistance. To best balance these needs, a grower or PCA needs the best information possible for selecting and timing chemical controls. This study examines the array of Lygus chemical control options currently available as well as experimental compounds that may or may not be available in the future. While identifying the best chemical controls is the major objective of this study, insights into proper timing and duration of control are also discussed. In short, there are few, yet effective, Lygus insecticides available to growers currently. However, with proper rates and timing, significant yield protection can be achieved with Orthene® or Vydate®. To a lesser extent, Thiodan® (endosulfan) was also effective against Lygus, though higher rates than used in this study may be necessary to achieve acceptable control. The use of mixtures did not enhance control of Lygus over our two standards (Orthene or Vydate). Newer compounds were also studied; however, Mirids (plant bugs) are not worldwide targets for development by the agrochemical industry. Thus, most new compounds are effective on some other primary pest (e.g., whiteflies, boll weevil, thrips, aphids), and control of Lygus is merely a potential collateral benefit. Of these, the chloronicotinyls (e.g., Provado®, Actara®) were not practically effective against Lygus hesperus, in spite of their existing or pending labelling. Their labels are based on demonstrated efficacy against a related species present in cotton outside of the West (Lygus lineolaris). One compound shows excellent promise as a Lygus control agent, Regent® (fipronil). Under development by Rhône- Poulenc, this insecticide provides as good or better protection against Lygus than our best materials. In a system demanding multiple applications to control chronic Lygus populations, Regent could be key to the development of a sustainable use strategy that does not over rely on any single chemical class. None of the insecticides tested significantly controlled adult Lygus, except after repeated use and time. Even then, this effect was likely the result of generational control of the nymphal stage which thus produced fewer adults over time. Nymphal control was excellent for Orthene, Vydate, and Regent. Yields were up to five times higher in the best treatments relative to the untreated control. Other effects were also documented for the best treatments which have additional positive impact on grower profitability: shorter plants (better defoliation), higher lint turnouts, less gin trash, and a lower seed index.
Keywords:
Agriculture -- Arizona; Cotton -- Arizona; Insect investigations
Series/Report no.:
AZ1123

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.titleEvaluation of Chemical Controls of Lygus hesperus in Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.authorEllsworth, Peter C.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentThe University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Centeren_US
dc.date.issued1999-
dc.publisherCollege of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ)en_US
dc.identifier.journalCotton: A College of Agriculture Reporten_US
dc.description.abstractWhen other means fail to avoid damaging levels of an insect pest population, chemical control becomes necessary. Chemical control is a variable farm input which should be optimized to reduce economic damage by the pest while maximizing profit and minimizing exposure to secondary pest outbreaks, pest resurgence, and risks of insecticide resistance. To best balance these needs, a grower or PCA needs the best information possible for selecting and timing chemical controls. This study examines the array of Lygus chemical control options currently available as well as experimental compounds that may or may not be available in the future. While identifying the best chemical controls is the major objective of this study, insights into proper timing and duration of control are also discussed. In short, there are few, yet effective, Lygus insecticides available to growers currently. However, with proper rates and timing, significant yield protection can be achieved with Orthene® or Vydate®. To a lesser extent, Thiodan® (endosulfan) was also effective against Lygus, though higher rates than used in this study may be necessary to achieve acceptable control. The use of mixtures did not enhance control of Lygus over our two standards (Orthene or Vydate). Newer compounds were also studied; however, Mirids (plant bugs) are not worldwide targets for development by the agrochemical industry. Thus, most new compounds are effective on some other primary pest (e.g., whiteflies, boll weevil, thrips, aphids), and control of Lygus is merely a potential collateral benefit. Of these, the chloronicotinyls (e.g., Provado®, Actara®) were not practically effective against Lygus hesperus, in spite of their existing or pending labelling. Their labels are based on demonstrated efficacy against a related species present in cotton outside of the West (Lygus lineolaris). One compound shows excellent promise as a Lygus control agent, Regent® (fipronil). Under development by Rhône- Poulenc, this insecticide provides as good or better protection against Lygus than our best materials. In a system demanding multiple applications to control chronic Lygus populations, Regent could be key to the development of a sustainable use strategy that does not over rely on any single chemical class. None of the insecticides tested significantly controlled adult Lygus, except after repeated use and time. Even then, this effect was likely the result of generational control of the nymphal stage which thus produced fewer adults over time. Nymphal control was excellent for Orthene, Vydate, and Regent. Yields were up to five times higher in the best treatments relative to the untreated control. Other effects were also documented for the best treatments which have additional positive impact on grower profitability: shorter plants (better defoliation), higher lint turnouts, less gin trash, and a lower seed index.en_US
dc.subjectAgriculture -- Arizonaen_US
dc.subjectCotton -- Arizonaen_US
dc.subjectInsect investigationsen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/197276-
dc.relation.ispartofseriesAZ1123en_US
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