Biology Facilitated by Heme Proteins as Seen in Cimex Nitrophorin and Ecdysone Inducible Protein 75

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/196147
Title:
Biology Facilitated by Heme Proteins as Seen in Cimex Nitrophorin and Ecdysone Inducible Protein 75
Author:
Badgandi, Hemant B.
Issue Date:
2009
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
This dissertation is a study in how heme facilitates biology using two heme proteins as examples. I write about my mechanistic studies on Cimex nitrophorin and preliminary studies on Ecdysone inducible protein 75, respectively. Nitrophorins are salivary heme proteins used by bloodfeeding insects to deliver NO to the victim, leading to vasodilation and antihemostasis. The bedbug nitrophorin cNP, a thiolate heme protein accomplishes this via an unusual heme-assisted S-nitrosation reaction, requiring proximal ligand cleavage. This dissertation explores this mechanism through mutational, crystallographic and transient kinetic approaches. I present the detailed investigation of the two NO binding events, one at the heme and the other at the proximal cysteine. The heme nitrosyl shows marked pH dependence arising out of the apparent protonation of the proximal cysteine ligand, a feature crucial to cNP function. The structures and spectroscopy of cNP mutant proteins reveal the SNO modification to be regulatory in nature. Laser flash photolysis measurements and the structures of mutant proteins reveal the negative influence of steric hindrance on SNO stability.Studies of insect embryogenesis and metamorphosis reveal the regulatory role of the hormone ecdysone via its target, the ecdysone receptor. Ecdysone triggers expression of several nuclear receptors in a time and tissue dependant fashion, which in turn carry out gene regulation. Ecdysone inducible protein 75 (E75), a nuclear receptor and an early ecdysone responsive gene product, regulates a subset of the developmental activities attributed to ecdysone. We are investigating E75 from Aedes aegypti to uncover its role in ecdysone signaling in mosquitoes. I have expressed and partially purified the full length protein using the baculovirus driven expression in SF9 cells, and purified to homogeneity the heme binding domain resolubilized from inclusion bodies obtained by expression in E. coli. Preliminary characterization of the proteins using UV-visible spectroscopy indicates that E75 has a b type heme with a low spin six-coordinate ferric iron. In the E75 heme binding domain, the heme exhibits an unstable ferrous state and only binds NO and CO at high non-physiological levels. These data place into doubt the suggested roles for E75 as a gas regulated transcription regulator.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
ecdysone; Insect biology; nitric oxide; S-nitrosation
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Biochemistry & Molecular Biophysics; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Montfort, William R
Committee Chair:
Montfort, William R

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleBiology Facilitated by Heme Proteins as Seen in Cimex Nitrophorin and Ecdysone Inducible Protein 75en_US
dc.creatorBadgandi, Hemant B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBadgandi, Hemant B.en_US
dc.date.issued2009en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThis dissertation is a study in how heme facilitates biology using two heme proteins as examples. I write about my mechanistic studies on Cimex nitrophorin and preliminary studies on Ecdysone inducible protein 75, respectively. Nitrophorins are salivary heme proteins used by bloodfeeding insects to deliver NO to the victim, leading to vasodilation and antihemostasis. The bedbug nitrophorin cNP, a thiolate heme protein accomplishes this via an unusual heme-assisted S-nitrosation reaction, requiring proximal ligand cleavage. This dissertation explores this mechanism through mutational, crystallographic and transient kinetic approaches. I present the detailed investigation of the two NO binding events, one at the heme and the other at the proximal cysteine. The heme nitrosyl shows marked pH dependence arising out of the apparent protonation of the proximal cysteine ligand, a feature crucial to cNP function. The structures and spectroscopy of cNP mutant proteins reveal the SNO modification to be regulatory in nature. Laser flash photolysis measurements and the structures of mutant proteins reveal the negative influence of steric hindrance on SNO stability.Studies of insect embryogenesis and metamorphosis reveal the regulatory role of the hormone ecdysone via its target, the ecdysone receptor. Ecdysone triggers expression of several nuclear receptors in a time and tissue dependant fashion, which in turn carry out gene regulation. Ecdysone inducible protein 75 (E75), a nuclear receptor and an early ecdysone responsive gene product, regulates a subset of the developmental activities attributed to ecdysone. We are investigating E75 from Aedes aegypti to uncover its role in ecdysone signaling in mosquitoes. I have expressed and partially purified the full length protein using the baculovirus driven expression in SF9 cells, and purified to homogeneity the heme binding domain resolubilized from inclusion bodies obtained by expression in E. coli. Preliminary characterization of the proteins using UV-visible spectroscopy indicates that E75 has a b type heme with a low spin six-coordinate ferric iron. In the E75 heme binding domain, the heme exhibits an unstable ferrous state and only binds NO and CO at high non-physiological levels. These data place into doubt the suggested roles for E75 as a gas regulated transcription regulator.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectecdysoneen_US
dc.subjectInsect biologyen_US
dc.subjectnitric oxideen_US
dc.subjectS-nitrosationen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiochemistry & Molecular Biophysicsen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMontfort, William Ren_US
dc.contributor.chairMontfort, William Ren_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBandarian, Vaheen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMcEvoy, Meganen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMiesfeld, Roger Len_US
dc.contributor.committeememberTollin, Gordonen_US
dc.identifier.proquest10264en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659750871en_US
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