Trehalulose and Multiple Day Flight in the Physiology and Ecology of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195980
Title:
Trehalulose and Multiple Day Flight in the Physiology and Ecology of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)
Author:
Hardin, Jesse Andrew
Issue Date:
2009
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Physiological factors that might influence ecological dynamics were investigated to better explain the biology of Bemisia tabaci in the desert southwest. Trehalulose, a unique disaccharide only found in unusually large quantities in B. tabaci honeydew, was shown not to be different from sucrose in promoting longevity in honeydew-consuming parasitoids, indicating this insect-modified sugar does not affect the nutritional quality of aleyrodid excreta. Trehalulose is not believed to function as a feeding deterrent to natural enemies. Experiments were designed to examine the effect of temperature on sorbitol and trehalulose production by the whitefly. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of honeydew and whole body extractions revealed a negative relationship between amounts of trehalulose in the honeydew and sorbitol accumulation in the whitefly body, linking these two molecules as important to the nutritional ecology of whiteflies. In another experiment to better understand the dispersal of whiteflies across the landscape, studies of flight over multiple days were conducted to describe the role of prior flight experience on dispersal and migratory flight. Flight performance traits were measured over multiple days of flight to compare two groups of B. tabaci, those trapped moving outside of planted fields with those collected within fields. Trap-caught individuals exhibited flights of significantly shorter duration in a vertical flight chamber. Flights determined to have characteristics of migratory behaviors were initially of longer duration for trap-captured whiteflies than their field-collected counterparts. Over the context of multiple days, however, their longer flights were followed by much shorter flights on subsequent days. Although many insects from both groups were capable of movement on multiple days, almost all of these flights were of a foraging nature. Foraging flights of short duration would likely not add to dispersal distances, thereby limiting whiteflies to their originating patch.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
bemisia; dispersal; migration; parasitoid; trehalulose; whitefly
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Entomology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Byrne, David N
Committee Chair:
Byrne, David N

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleTrehalulose and Multiple Day Flight in the Physiology and Ecology of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)en_US
dc.creatorHardin, Jesse Andrewen_US
dc.contributor.authorHardin, Jesse Andrewen_US
dc.date.issued2009en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractPhysiological factors that might influence ecological dynamics were investigated to better explain the biology of Bemisia tabaci in the desert southwest. Trehalulose, a unique disaccharide only found in unusually large quantities in B. tabaci honeydew, was shown not to be different from sucrose in promoting longevity in honeydew-consuming parasitoids, indicating this insect-modified sugar does not affect the nutritional quality of aleyrodid excreta. Trehalulose is not believed to function as a feeding deterrent to natural enemies. Experiments were designed to examine the effect of temperature on sorbitol and trehalulose production by the whitefly. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of honeydew and whole body extractions revealed a negative relationship between amounts of trehalulose in the honeydew and sorbitol accumulation in the whitefly body, linking these two molecules as important to the nutritional ecology of whiteflies. In another experiment to better understand the dispersal of whiteflies across the landscape, studies of flight over multiple days were conducted to describe the role of prior flight experience on dispersal and migratory flight. Flight performance traits were measured over multiple days of flight to compare two groups of B. tabaci, those trapped moving outside of planted fields with those collected within fields. Trap-caught individuals exhibited flights of significantly shorter duration in a vertical flight chamber. Flights determined to have characteristics of migratory behaviors were initially of longer duration for trap-captured whiteflies than their field-collected counterparts. Over the context of multiple days, however, their longer flights were followed by much shorter flights on subsequent days. Although many insects from both groups were capable of movement on multiple days, almost all of these flights were of a foraging nature. Foraging flights of short duration would likely not add to dispersal distances, thereby limiting whiteflies to their originating patch.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectbemisiaen_US
dc.subjectdispersalen_US
dc.subjectmigrationen_US
dc.subjectparasitoiden_US
dc.subjecttrehaluloseen_US
dc.subjectwhiteflyen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineEntomologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorByrne, David Nen_US
dc.contributor.chairByrne, David Nen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHunter, Martha Sen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPapaj, Daniel Ren_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSalvucci, Michael Een_US
dc.identifier.proquest10703en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659753481en_US
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