A Palynological Study of Landscape Change During the Spanish Colonial Period in the U.S. Southwest

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195914
Title:
A Palynological Study of Landscape Change During the Spanish Colonial Period in the U.S. Southwest
Author:
Arendt, Nicole Marie
Issue Date:
2010
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
The introduction, intentional or otherwise, of plants (both cultivated plants and weeds), animals, and technologies that occurred with Spanish colonization in the Southwest had profound impacts on vegetation and landscape that are reflected in larger changes in indigenous land and resource use, culture, and identity. Archaeological palynology provides information on both the environmental and agricultural impacts of colonialism. Through the study of two sites occupied during the colonial period, in different areas, reflecting different experiences of colonized groups, the range of effects of introductions is investigated. Paa-ko, in New Mexico, was occupied in the early colonial period and was more peripheral to the colonial system than was the second site, Tumacacori, in southern Arizona, the location of a mission that was occupied into the mid-1800s.The identification of introductions, including both new plants and new ways of cultivating and processing plants, in the pollen record is central to this study. The differentiation, using pollen diameters, of grasses is particularly important, although studies of reference pollen show a great overlap between these types. Because of the importance of pollen diameters for the identification of this and other pollen types, factors that could affect pollen size, including processing methods, which did not seem to have much effect, and mounting media (and time since processing), which had rather dramatic effects on diameters, are also important. These and other experimental studies conducted to provide analogs to agricultural and processing areas that would have been seen in the Spanish colonial period, can assist in the interpretation of pollen samples from sites of this period, including the two sites discussed here. While the pollen evidence from Paa-ko demonstrates a continuation of the cultivation of native crops, including maize and squash, and the absence of cultivation of introductions, pollen from Tumacacori demonstrates the absence of cultivation of native crops, particularly maize, and, possibly, cultivation of wheat, in the area closest to the mission and most heavily influenced by missionary control, reflecting, perhaps, the greater integration of Tumacacori into the colonial system and a greater acceptance and use of introduced crops in this later colonial period.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Archaeology; Colonialism; Paa-ko; Palynology; Southwest; Tumacacori
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Anthropology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Fish, Suzanne K.
Committee Chair:
Fish, Suzanne K.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleA Palynological Study of Landscape Change During the Spanish Colonial Period in the U.S. Southwesten_US
dc.creatorArendt, Nicole Marieen_US
dc.contributor.authorArendt, Nicole Marieen_US
dc.date.issued2010en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe introduction, intentional or otherwise, of plants (both cultivated plants and weeds), animals, and technologies that occurred with Spanish colonization in the Southwest had profound impacts on vegetation and landscape that are reflected in larger changes in indigenous land and resource use, culture, and identity. Archaeological palynology provides information on both the environmental and agricultural impacts of colonialism. Through the study of two sites occupied during the colonial period, in different areas, reflecting different experiences of colonized groups, the range of effects of introductions is investigated. Paa-ko, in New Mexico, was occupied in the early colonial period and was more peripheral to the colonial system than was the second site, Tumacacori, in southern Arizona, the location of a mission that was occupied into the mid-1800s.The identification of introductions, including both new plants and new ways of cultivating and processing plants, in the pollen record is central to this study. The differentiation, using pollen diameters, of grasses is particularly important, although studies of reference pollen show a great overlap between these types. Because of the importance of pollen diameters for the identification of this and other pollen types, factors that could affect pollen size, including processing methods, which did not seem to have much effect, and mounting media (and time since processing), which had rather dramatic effects on diameters, are also important. These and other experimental studies conducted to provide analogs to agricultural and processing areas that would have been seen in the Spanish colonial period, can assist in the interpretation of pollen samples from sites of this period, including the two sites discussed here. While the pollen evidence from Paa-ko demonstrates a continuation of the cultivation of native crops, including maize and squash, and the absence of cultivation of introductions, pollen from Tumacacori demonstrates the absence of cultivation of native crops, particularly maize, and, possibly, cultivation of wheat, in the area closest to the mission and most heavily influenced by missionary control, reflecting, perhaps, the greater integration of Tumacacori into the colonial system and a greater acceptance and use of introduced crops in this later colonial period.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectArchaeologyen_US
dc.subjectColonialismen_US
dc.subjectPaa-koen_US
dc.subjectPalynologyen_US
dc.subjectSouthwesten_US
dc.subjectTumacacorien_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineAnthropologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorFish, Suzanne K.en_US
dc.contributor.chairFish, Suzanne K.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFish, Paul R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMills, Barbara J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDavis, Owen K.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHolliday, Vance T.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest10987en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659754908en_US
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