Lessons Learned from a Clockwork Orange: How Retraining Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes Affects Motivation and Performance under Stereotype Threat

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195809
Title:
Lessons Learned from a Clockwork Orange: How Retraining Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes Affects Motivation and Performance under Stereotype Threat
Author:
Forbes, Chad Edward
Issue Date:
2009
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
While evidence suggests stereotype threat effects invade conscious levels of processing, less is known about the role that implicit processes play in stereotype threat. Results from four studies indicate that implicit attitudes and stereotypes play a unique role in motivation and performance in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have positive implicit math attitudes exhibited increased math motivation in general (Study 1). This effect was magnified among stereotype threatened women when negative stereotypes had either been primed subtly (Study 2) or implicitly reinforced (Study 3). Implicit attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity or performance however. Conversely, after retraining women to associate their gender with being good at math, they exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) and increased math performance (Study 4) in stereotype threatening situations. The enhanced performance that resulted from the positive stereotype reinforcement was mediated by the increased working memory capacity. Thus while implicit attitudes appear important for motivating stigmatized individuals to engage with stigmatized domains, stereotypes play a key role in undermining cognitive capacity that is critical for success in the domain.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Cognitive Retraining; Implicit Attitudes; Implicit Stereotypes; Motivation; Stereotype Threat; Working Memory
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Psychology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Schmader, Toni
Committee Chair:
Schmader, Toni

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleLessons Learned from a Clockwork Orange: How Retraining Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes Affects Motivation and Performance under Stereotype Threaten_US
dc.creatorForbes, Chad Edwarden_US
dc.contributor.authorForbes, Chad Edwarden_US
dc.date.issued2009en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractWhile evidence suggests stereotype threat effects invade conscious levels of processing, less is known about the role that implicit processes play in stereotype threat. Results from four studies indicate that implicit attitudes and stereotypes play a unique role in motivation and performance in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have positive implicit math attitudes exhibited increased math motivation in general (Study 1). This effect was magnified among stereotype threatened women when negative stereotypes had either been primed subtly (Study 2) or implicitly reinforced (Study 3). Implicit attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity or performance however. Conversely, after retraining women to associate their gender with being good at math, they exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) and increased math performance (Study 4) in stereotype threatening situations. The enhanced performance that resulted from the positive stereotype reinforcement was mediated by the increased working memory capacity. Thus while implicit attitudes appear important for motivating stigmatized individuals to engage with stigmatized domains, stereotypes play a key role in undermining cognitive capacity that is critical for success in the domain.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectCognitive Retrainingen_US
dc.subjectImplicit Attitudesen_US
dc.subjectImplicit Stereotypesen_US
dc.subjectMotivationen_US
dc.subjectStereotype Threaten_US
dc.subjectWorking Memoryen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePsychologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorSchmader, Tonien_US
dc.contributor.chairSchmader, Tonien_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStone, Jeffen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMehl, Matthiasen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberAllen, John J.B.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest10374en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659751987en_US
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