Porcine Enteric Disease Caused by Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Immunity

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195681
Title:
Porcine Enteric Disease Caused by Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Immunity
Author:
Anderson, Michael Anthony
Issue Date:
2008
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens are among the most commonagents of enteric disease in both humans and domestic animals. The former continues to increase in prevalence and diseases caused by the latter persist. Infection with a recently emergedhypervirulent strain (NAP1/027/III) of C. difficile is increasingly common andserious sequelae and fatalities are much more common in these patients. In neonatalpiglets, C. difficile infection (CDI) has become a common occurrence. Historically,isolation of C. perfringens type A from patients with enteric disease has been consideredinconsequential due to its presence in the normal intestine and to the mild nature ofdisease syndromes such as porcine enteritis. However, both CDI and type A diseasecause losses to the swine industry and pigs have been implicated as a possible source ofC. difficile for infection in humans. We investigated the epidemiology and pathogenesisof porcine CDI, and immunity against porcine CDI and type A enteritis. The occurrenceof CDI in integrated swine production facilities was most common in neonatal pigs.Infection in sows was rare, and finisher pigs were culture negative. All C. difficile strainswere ribotype 078. Hypervirulent strain NAP1/027/TTIII was more virulent in neonatalpigs than both a historic human historic human strain and a porcine strain with toxinproducing potential similar to ribotype 027 strains. Inoculation of anti-microbial-treatedadolescent pigs with NAP1/027/III did not cause disease. Ingra-gastric inoculation ofpigs with purified TcdA resulted in severe small intestine damage which isuncharacteristic of natural disease; effects of TcdB were minimal. Passive immunizationof piglets against C. difficile TcdA or C. perfringens type A alpha (CPA) and beta 2(CPB2) toxins did not prevent disease.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Clostridium; difficile; enteritis; perfringens; pigs; typhlocolitis
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Pathobiology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Songer, J. Glenn
Committee Chair:
Songer, J. Glenn

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titlePorcine Enteric Disease Caused by Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Immunityen_US
dc.creatorAnderson, Michael Anthonyen_US
dc.contributor.authorAnderson, Michael Anthonyen_US
dc.date.issued2008en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractClostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens are among the most commonagents of enteric disease in both humans and domestic animals. The former continues to increase in prevalence and diseases caused by the latter persist. Infection with a recently emergedhypervirulent strain (NAP1/027/III) of C. difficile is increasingly common andserious sequelae and fatalities are much more common in these patients. In neonatalpiglets, C. difficile infection (CDI) has become a common occurrence. Historically,isolation of C. perfringens type A from patients with enteric disease has been consideredinconsequential due to its presence in the normal intestine and to the mild nature ofdisease syndromes such as porcine enteritis. However, both CDI and type A diseasecause losses to the swine industry and pigs have been implicated as a possible source ofC. difficile for infection in humans. We investigated the epidemiology and pathogenesisof porcine CDI, and immunity against porcine CDI and type A enteritis. The occurrenceof CDI in integrated swine production facilities was most common in neonatal pigs.Infection in sows was rare, and finisher pigs were culture negative. All C. difficile strainswere ribotype 078. Hypervirulent strain NAP1/027/TTIII was more virulent in neonatalpigs than both a historic human historic human strain and a porcine strain with toxinproducing potential similar to ribotype 027 strains. Inoculation of anti-microbial-treatedadolescent pigs with NAP1/027/III did not cause disease. Ingra-gastric inoculation ofpigs with purified TcdA resulted in severe small intestine damage which isuncharacteristic of natural disease; effects of TcdB were minimal. Passive immunizationof piglets against C. difficile TcdA or C. perfringens type A alpha (CPA) and beta 2(CPB2) toxins did not prevent disease.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectClostridiumen_US
dc.subjectdifficileen_US
dc.subjectenteritisen_US
dc.subjectperfringensen_US
dc.subjectpigsen_US
dc.subjecttyphlocolitisen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePathobiologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorSonger, J. Glennen_US
dc.contributor.chairSonger, J. Glennen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBesselsen, Daviden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBillington, Stephen J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGlock, Roberten_US
dc.contributor.committeememberJoens, Lynnen_US
dc.identifier.proquest10092en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659750621en_US
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