Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195631
Title:
EVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF ENDOSYMBIONT GENOMES
Author:
Degnan, Patrick H.
Issue Date:
2009
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Intracellular symbioses between bacteria and insects are numerous, and alter the ecology and evolution of host and symbiont alike. Long-term persistence results from either exploitation (e.g., reproductive manipulations) or mutually beneficial interactions (e.g., nutritional mutualisms). The endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, while not essential for growth or survival of healthy aphids, protects aphids from attack by parasitoid wasps. In this thesis, I have used a variety of sequenced-based techniques to illuminate the population and genome dynamics of H. defensa and to disentangle how these factors contribute to its ability to persist and protect its hosts.I characterized the phylogenetic relationships among H. defensa strains from aphids and a whitefly using a multilocus approach. Most loci evolve in a clonal manner, and one cluster of strains may have given rise to an obligate symbiosis. Some H. defensa strains were infected with the bacteriophage APSE, which encodes putative eukaryotic specific toxins and has been suggested to be involved in protecting aphids. I sequenced the toxin locus and the flanking regions from the APSE strains and found that although the phage genome backbone was highly conserved, strains contained non-orthologous toxin-cassettes. Sequenced cassettes contained one of three putative toxin families: Shiga toxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and YD-repeat toxins. A correlation was noted that of several genetically identical H. defensa strains, the one without phage APSE encoding the YD-repeat toxin failed to protect its aphid host. This APSE strain carrying the YD-repeat toxin has since been demonstrated to be essential for protection in several related H. defensastrains.To examine additional bacterial encoded loci that might facilitate the persistence in and protection of aphids by H. defensa, I sequenced the genome of one strain and obtained partial genomes of two additional strains. These genomes exhibit a streamlined metabolism, but are littered with mobile DNA and putative virulence factors. Horizontal gene transfer, recombination and rearrangements are common, and phage and plasmids have played an important role in resorting genes. Thus, although H. defensa benefits its host, its facultative lifestyle has resulted in a pattern of genome evolution associated with reproductive parasites rather than long-term mutualists.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Acyrthosiphon pisum; bacteriophage APSE; cytolethal distending toxin; facultative endosymbiont; Hamiltonella defensa; mobile DNA
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Moran, Nancy A
Committee Chair:
Moran, Nancy A

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleEVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF ENDOSYMBIONT GENOMESen_US
dc.creatorDegnan, Patrick H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDegnan, Patrick H.en_US
dc.date.issued2009en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractIntracellular symbioses between bacteria and insects are numerous, and alter the ecology and evolution of host and symbiont alike. Long-term persistence results from either exploitation (e.g., reproductive manipulations) or mutually beneficial interactions (e.g., nutritional mutualisms). The endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, while not essential for growth or survival of healthy aphids, protects aphids from attack by parasitoid wasps. In this thesis, I have used a variety of sequenced-based techniques to illuminate the population and genome dynamics of H. defensa and to disentangle how these factors contribute to its ability to persist and protect its hosts.I characterized the phylogenetic relationships among H. defensa strains from aphids and a whitefly using a multilocus approach. Most loci evolve in a clonal manner, and one cluster of strains may have given rise to an obligate symbiosis. Some H. defensa strains were infected with the bacteriophage APSE, which encodes putative eukaryotic specific toxins and has been suggested to be involved in protecting aphids. I sequenced the toxin locus and the flanking regions from the APSE strains and found that although the phage genome backbone was highly conserved, strains contained non-orthologous toxin-cassettes. Sequenced cassettes contained one of three putative toxin families: Shiga toxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and YD-repeat toxins. A correlation was noted that of several genetically identical H. defensa strains, the one without phage APSE encoding the YD-repeat toxin failed to protect its aphid host. This APSE strain carrying the YD-repeat toxin has since been demonstrated to be essential for protection in several related H. defensastrains.To examine additional bacterial encoded loci that might facilitate the persistence in and protection of aphids by H. defensa, I sequenced the genome of one strain and obtained partial genomes of two additional strains. These genomes exhibit a streamlined metabolism, but are littered with mobile DNA and putative virulence factors. Horizontal gene transfer, recombination and rearrangements are common, and phage and plasmids have played an important role in resorting genes. Thus, although H. defensa benefits its host, its facultative lifestyle has resulted in a pattern of genome evolution associated with reproductive parasites rather than long-term mutualists.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectAcyrthosiphon pisumen_US
dc.subjectbacteriophage APSEen_US
dc.subjectcytolethal distending toxinen_US
dc.subjectfacultative endosymbionten_US
dc.subjectHamiltonella defensaen_US
dc.subjectmobile DNAen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineEcology & Evolutionary Biologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMoran, Nancy Aen_US
dc.contributor.chairMoran, Nancy Aen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberNachman, Michael Wen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberOchman, Howarden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWorobey, Michaelen_US
dc.identifier.proquest10715en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659753506en_US
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