Dephasing and Decoherence in Open Quantum Systems: A Dyson's Equation Approach

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195386
Title:
Dephasing and Decoherence in Open Quantum Systems: A Dyson's Equation Approach
Author:
Cardamone, David Michael
Issue Date:
2005
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
In this work, the Dyson's equation formalism is outlined and applied toseveral open quantum systems. These systems are composed of a core,quantum-mechanical set of discrete states and several continua, representing macroscopic systems. The macroscopic systems introducedecoherence, as well as allowing the total particlenumber in the system to change.Dyson's equation, an expansion in terms of proper self-energy terms, isderived. The hybridization of two quantum levelsis reproduced in this formalism, and it is shown that decoherence followsnaturally when one of the levels is replaced by a continuum.The work considers three physical systems in detail. The first,quantum dots coupled in series with two leads, is presented in a realistic two-level model. Dyson's equation is used to account for the leads exactly to all ordersin perturbation theory, and the time dynamics of a single electron in the dotsis calculated. It is shown that decoherence from the leads damps the coherentRabi oscillations of the electron. Several regimes of physical interest areconsidered, and it is shown that the difference in couplings of the two leadsplays a central role in the decoherence processes.The second system relates to the decay-out ofsuperdeformed nuclei. In this case, decoherence is provided by coupling to theelectromagnetic field. Two, three, and infinite-level models are consideredwithin the discrete system. It is shown that the two-level model is usuallysufficient to describe decay-out for the classic regions of nuclearsuperdeformation. Furthermore, a statistical model for the normal-deformedstates allows extraction of parameters of interest to nuclear structure fromthe two-level model. An explanation for the universality of decayprofiles is also given in that model.The final system is a proposed small molecular transistor. TheQuantum Interference Effect Transistor is based on a single monocyclic aromatic annulene molecule, with twoleads arranged in the meta configuration. This device is shown to be completely opaque to charge carriers, due to destructive interference. Thiscoherence effect can be tunably broken by introducing new paths with a real orimaginary self-energy, and an excellentmolecular transistor is the result.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Dyson's equation; Green function; Decoherence; Quantum Dot; Superdeformed; Molecular Transistor
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Physics; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Barrett, Bruce R; Stafford, Charles A
Committee Chair:
Barrett, Bruce R; Stafford, Charles A

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleDephasing and Decoherence in Open Quantum Systems: A Dyson's Equation Approachen_US
dc.creatorCardamone, David Michaelen_US
dc.contributor.authorCardamone, David Michaelen_US
dc.date.issued2005en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractIn this work, the Dyson's equation formalism is outlined and applied toseveral open quantum systems. These systems are composed of a core,quantum-mechanical set of discrete states and several continua, representing macroscopic systems. The macroscopic systems introducedecoherence, as well as allowing the total particlenumber in the system to change.Dyson's equation, an expansion in terms of proper self-energy terms, isderived. The hybridization of two quantum levelsis reproduced in this formalism, and it is shown that decoherence followsnaturally when one of the levels is replaced by a continuum.The work considers three physical systems in detail. The first,quantum dots coupled in series with two leads, is presented in a realistic two-level model. Dyson's equation is used to account for the leads exactly to all ordersin perturbation theory, and the time dynamics of a single electron in the dotsis calculated. It is shown that decoherence from the leads damps the coherentRabi oscillations of the electron. Several regimes of physical interest areconsidered, and it is shown that the difference in couplings of the two leadsplays a central role in the decoherence processes.The second system relates to the decay-out ofsuperdeformed nuclei. In this case, decoherence is provided by coupling to theelectromagnetic field. Two, three, and infinite-level models are consideredwithin the discrete system. It is shown that the two-level model is usuallysufficient to describe decay-out for the classic regions of nuclearsuperdeformation. Furthermore, a statistical model for the normal-deformedstates allows extraction of parameters of interest to nuclear structure fromthe two-level model. An explanation for the universality of decayprofiles is also given in that model.The final system is a proposed small molecular transistor. TheQuantum Interference Effect Transistor is based on a single monocyclic aromatic annulene molecule, with twoleads arranged in the meta configuration. This device is shown to be completely opaque to charge carriers, due to destructive interference. Thiscoherence effect can be tunably broken by introducing new paths with a real orimaginary self-energy, and an excellentmolecular transistor is the result.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectDyson's equationen_US
dc.subjectGreen functionen_US
dc.subjectDecoherenceen_US
dc.subjectQuantum Doten_US
dc.subjectSuperdeformeden_US
dc.subjectMolecular Transistoren_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePhysicsen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorBarrett, Bruce Ren_US
dc.contributor.advisorStafford, Charles Aen_US
dc.contributor.chairBarrett, Bruce Ren_US
dc.contributor.chairStafford, Charles Aen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMazumdar, Sumitendraen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberShupe, Michael A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberVisscher, Koenen_US
dc.identifier.proquest1271en_US
dc.identifier.oclc137354735en_US
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