Systematics of the Bemisia tabaci Complex and the Role of Endosymbionts in Reproductive Compatibility

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195357
Title:
Systematics of the Bemisia tabaci Complex and the Role of Endosymbionts in Reproductive Compatibility
Author:
Caballero, Rafael De J.
Issue Date:
2006
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Reciprocal and homologous crosses were carried out using pairs or groups of twenty males and females for three biotypes of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex. Crosses were undertaken for the A biotype-Arizona (AzA), the B biotype-Africa (AzB), and the monophagous, Jatropha (Jat) biotype-Puerto Rico. The maternal haplotype pedigree of parents and selected offspring (F₁, F₂) was determined using the mitochondria cytochome oxidase I sequence. All reciprocal crosses yielded viable female offspring, indicating reproductively compatibility, except for AzB♀ x AzA♂, or AzB♀ x Jat♂ crosses, which yielded females unidirectionally. As an unidirectional pattern was reminiscent of cytoplasmic-mediated incompatibility (CI), the possibility was investigated that the phenotype might be caused by CI-bacteria, instead of a germ line barrier. Using the 16S rRNA sequence three prospective CI-bacterial species were identified in whitefly colonies. A Cardinium spp. (Bacteroidetes) was present in the A biotype (isolates AzA, CulA, RivA, SalA), whereas the B biotype (isolates AzB, FlB1, FlB2) was infected with Rickettsia bellii (Proteobacteria), and a Wolbachia spp. (Proteobacteria) was associated with the Jat biotype. The unidirectional incompatible phenotypes were consistent with CI-bacterial infection of AzA (Cardinium) and Jat (Wolbachia), but no such association was apparent for B biotype-Rickettsia infections. The bidirectional compatibility for Jat x AzA suggested a CI-bacteria-mediated reciprocal rescue. However, that Wolbachia-infected Jat♀ and Cardinium-infected AzA♂ crosses yielded fewer females, compared to AzA-Cardinium♀ and Jat- Wolbachia♂ crosses, suggested that Cardinium could better counter Wolbachia-induced female mortality than Wolbachia. This suggested the possibility that these phylogenetically divergent bacteria might utilize similar CI-mechanisms. In this study, the suspect CI-bacteria were strongly associated with complete or partial obstruction of gene flow in certain crosses, and with sex bias in the AzA x Jat crosses. This is the first evidence that female offspring can be produced between phylogeographically divergent, and polyphagous and monophagous B. tabaci, for which gene flow barriers are widely reported, suggesting that hybridization is utilized as a means of diversification in B. tabaci. The inability to rid colonies of CI-bacteria has necessitated introgression experiments to investigate direct CI-causality over CI-association.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
whiteflies; Bemisia; Wolbachia; Cardinium; mating; biotypes
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Entomology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Brown, Judith K.
Committee Chair:
Brown, Judith K.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleSystematics of the Bemisia tabaci Complex and the Role of Endosymbionts in Reproductive Compatibilityen_US
dc.creatorCaballero, Rafael De J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCaballero, Rafael De J.en_US
dc.date.issued2006en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractReciprocal and homologous crosses were carried out using pairs or groups of twenty males and females for three biotypes of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex. Crosses were undertaken for the A biotype-Arizona (AzA), the B biotype-Africa (AzB), and the monophagous, Jatropha (Jat) biotype-Puerto Rico. The maternal haplotype pedigree of parents and selected offspring (F₁, F₂) was determined using the mitochondria cytochome oxidase I sequence. All reciprocal crosses yielded viable female offspring, indicating reproductively compatibility, except for AzB♀ x AzA♂, or AzB♀ x Jat♂ crosses, which yielded females unidirectionally. As an unidirectional pattern was reminiscent of cytoplasmic-mediated incompatibility (CI), the possibility was investigated that the phenotype might be caused by CI-bacteria, instead of a germ line barrier. Using the 16S rRNA sequence three prospective CI-bacterial species were identified in whitefly colonies. A Cardinium spp. (Bacteroidetes) was present in the A biotype (isolates AzA, CulA, RivA, SalA), whereas the B biotype (isolates AzB, FlB1, FlB2) was infected with Rickettsia bellii (Proteobacteria), and a Wolbachia spp. (Proteobacteria) was associated with the Jat biotype. The unidirectional incompatible phenotypes were consistent with CI-bacterial infection of AzA (Cardinium) and Jat (Wolbachia), but no such association was apparent for B biotype-Rickettsia infections. The bidirectional compatibility for Jat x AzA suggested a CI-bacteria-mediated reciprocal rescue. However, that Wolbachia-infected Jat♀ and Cardinium-infected AzA♂ crosses yielded fewer females, compared to AzA-Cardinium♀ and Jat- Wolbachia♂ crosses, suggested that Cardinium could better counter Wolbachia-induced female mortality than Wolbachia. This suggested the possibility that these phylogenetically divergent bacteria might utilize similar CI-mechanisms. In this study, the suspect CI-bacteria were strongly associated with complete or partial obstruction of gene flow in certain crosses, and with sex bias in the AzA x Jat crosses. This is the first evidence that female offspring can be produced between phylogeographically divergent, and polyphagous and monophagous B. tabaci, for which gene flow barriers are widely reported, suggesting that hybridization is utilized as a means of diversification in B. tabaci. The inability to rid colonies of CI-bacteria has necessitated introgression experiments to investigate direct CI-causality over CI-association.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectwhitefliesen_US
dc.subjectBemisiaen_US
dc.subjectWolbachiaen_US
dc.subjectCardiniumen_US
dc.subjectmatingen_US
dc.subjectbiotypesen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineEntomologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorBrown, Judith K.en_US
dc.contributor.chairBrown, Judith K.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberByrne, David N.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHunter, Martha S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDennehy, Timothy J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCarriere, Yvesen_US
dc.identifier.proquest1805en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659746558en_US
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