Cholecystokinin Drives Descending Facilitation to Mediate Morphine-Induced Paradoxical "Pain" and Antinociceptive Tolerance

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195212
Title:
Cholecystokinin Drives Descending Facilitation to Mediate Morphine-Induced Paradoxical "Pain" and Antinociceptive Tolerance
Author:
Xie, Jennifer Yanhua
Issue Date:
2005
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Sustained administration of morphine in humans and in animals induces a state of abnormal pain (i.e., hyperalgesia) which may be associated with the development of reduced analgesic efficacy (i.e., tolerance). Evidence suggests that opiate treatment may upregulate cholecystokinin (CCK), a pronociceptive peptide, in the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, we hypothesized that CCK may be upregulated by opiate treatment in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and to subsequently drive descending facilitation mechanisms to elicit hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance in rats.CCK administered into the RVM of naive rats elicited hyperalgesia which was blocked by either RVM CCK2 receptor antagonist L365,260; or by bilateral lesion of dorsolateral funiculus, a major bulbospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the RVM to spinal cord.Sustained subcutaneous morphine induced hyperalgesia and spinal antinociceptive tolerance. Both effects were reversed by RVM CCK2 antagonist, suggesting that the up-regulation of the endogenous RVM CCK system played a critical role in the expression of these phenomena.Lesion of cells in the RVM which selectively express CCK2 receptors with a saporin construct (CCK-SAP) to inhibit ribosome activity, prevented morphine-induced hyperalgesia and spinal antinociceptive tolerance. These findings suggest that the integrity of the RVM CCK system is required for the development of hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance induced by sustained morphine.The CCK system does not seem to play a role in setting the baseline sensory thresholds in normal rats because neither RVM L365,260 nor CCK-SAP treatment altered baseline sensory thresholds in naive rats.CCK appears to be present exclusively in nerve terminals of RVM neurons in naive rats. There was no obvious change in the levels of CCK-LI, CCK2 receptor, or CCK2 receptor mRNA in the RVM after sustained morphine treatment. However, microdialysis studies showed an approximately 5-fold increase in basal CCK levels in the RVM after sustained morphine treatment.Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that increased release of CCK in the RVM is induced by sustained morphine and drives descending facilitation to mediate morphine-induced paradoxical "pain" and spinal antinociceptive tolerance.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
cholecystokinin; rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM); morphine; tolerance; hyperalgesia; microdialysis
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Pharmacology & Toxicology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Porreca, Frank
Committee Chair:
Porreca, Frank

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleCholecystokinin Drives Descending Facilitation to Mediate Morphine-Induced Paradoxical "Pain" and Antinociceptive Toleranceen_US
dc.creatorXie, Jennifer Yanhuaen_US
dc.contributor.authorXie, Jennifer Yanhuaen_US
dc.date.issued2005en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractSustained administration of morphine in humans and in animals induces a state of abnormal pain (i.e., hyperalgesia) which may be associated with the development of reduced analgesic efficacy (i.e., tolerance). Evidence suggests that opiate treatment may upregulate cholecystokinin (CCK), a pronociceptive peptide, in the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, we hypothesized that CCK may be upregulated by opiate treatment in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and to subsequently drive descending facilitation mechanisms to elicit hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance in rats.CCK administered into the RVM of naive rats elicited hyperalgesia which was blocked by either RVM CCK2 receptor antagonist L365,260; or by bilateral lesion of dorsolateral funiculus, a major bulbospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the RVM to spinal cord.Sustained subcutaneous morphine induced hyperalgesia and spinal antinociceptive tolerance. Both effects were reversed by RVM CCK2 antagonist, suggesting that the up-regulation of the endogenous RVM CCK system played a critical role in the expression of these phenomena.Lesion of cells in the RVM which selectively express CCK2 receptors with a saporin construct (CCK-SAP) to inhibit ribosome activity, prevented morphine-induced hyperalgesia and spinal antinociceptive tolerance. These findings suggest that the integrity of the RVM CCK system is required for the development of hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance induced by sustained morphine.The CCK system does not seem to play a role in setting the baseline sensory thresholds in normal rats because neither RVM L365,260 nor CCK-SAP treatment altered baseline sensory thresholds in naive rats.CCK appears to be present exclusively in nerve terminals of RVM neurons in naive rats. There was no obvious change in the levels of CCK-LI, CCK2 receptor, or CCK2 receptor mRNA in the RVM after sustained morphine treatment. However, microdialysis studies showed an approximately 5-fold increase in basal CCK levels in the RVM after sustained morphine treatment.Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that increased release of CCK in the RVM is induced by sustained morphine and drives descending facilitation to mediate morphine-induced paradoxical "pain" and spinal antinociceptive tolerance.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectcholecystokininen_US
dc.subjectrostral ventromedial medulla (RVM)en_US
dc.subjectmorphineen_US
dc.subjecttoleranceen_US
dc.subjecthyperalgesiaen_US
dc.subjectmicrodialysisen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorPorreca, Franken_US
dc.contributor.chairPorreca, Franken_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLai, Josephineen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberVanderah, Todden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFrench, Edwarden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSloviter, Roberten_US
dc.identifier.proquest1408en_US
dc.identifier.oclc137355772en_US
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