Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195004
Title:
Hydrodynamic Force Microscopy
Author:
Ulrich, Elaine
Issue Date:
2008
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Microfluidic networks and microporous materials have long been of interest in areas such as hydrology, petroleum engineering, chemical and electrochemical engineering, medicine and biochemical engineering. With the emergence of new processes in gas separation, cell sorting, ultrafiltration, and advanced materials synthesis, the importance of building a better qualitative and quantitative understanding of these key technologies has become apparent. However, microfluidic measurement and theory is still relatively underdeveloped, presenting a significant obstacle to the systematic design of microfluidic devices and materials. Theoretical challenges arise from the breakdown of classical viscous flow models as the flow dimensions approach the mean free path of individual molecules. Experimental challenges arise from the lack of flow profilometry techniques at sub-micron length scales. Here we present an extension of scanning probe microscopy techniques, which we have termed Hydrodynamic Force Microscopy (HFM). HFM exploits fluid drag to profile microflows and to map the permeability of microporous materials. In this technique, an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is scanned close to a microporous sample surface. The hydrodynamic interactions arising from a pressure-driven flow through the sample are then detected by mapping the deflection of an AFM cantilever. For gas flows at atmospheric pressure, HFM has been shown to achieve a velocity sensitivity of 1 cm/s with a spatial resolution of ~ 10 nm. This compares very favorably to established techniques such as hot-wire and laser Doppler anemometry, whose spatial resolutions typically exceed 1 μm and which may rely on the use of tracer particles or flow markers. We demonstrate that HFM can successfully profile Poiseuille flows inside pores as small as 100 nm and can distinguish Poiseuille flow from uniform flow for short entry lengths. HFM detection of fluid jets escaping from porous samples can also reveal a "permeability map" of a sample’s pore structure, allowing us to distinguish between clear and blocked pores, even in cases where the subsurface fouling is undetectable by conventional AFM. The experimental data is discussed in context with theoretical aspects of HFM microflow measurement and practical limits of this technique. Finally, we conclude with variations of standard HFM techniques that show some promise for investigation of smaller nanometer-scale flows of gases and liquids.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Optical Sciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Manne, Srinivas
Committee Chair:
Manne, Srinivas

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleHydrodynamic Force Microscopyen_US
dc.creatorUlrich, Elaineen_US
dc.contributor.authorUlrich, Elaineen_US
dc.date.issued2008en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractMicrofluidic networks and microporous materials have long been of interest in areas such as hydrology, petroleum engineering, chemical and electrochemical engineering, medicine and biochemical engineering. With the emergence of new processes in gas separation, cell sorting, ultrafiltration, and advanced materials synthesis, the importance of building a better qualitative and quantitative understanding of these key technologies has become apparent. However, microfluidic measurement and theory is still relatively underdeveloped, presenting a significant obstacle to the systematic design of microfluidic devices and materials. Theoretical challenges arise from the breakdown of classical viscous flow models as the flow dimensions approach the mean free path of individual molecules. Experimental challenges arise from the lack of flow profilometry techniques at sub-micron length scales. Here we present an extension of scanning probe microscopy techniques, which we have termed Hydrodynamic Force Microscopy (HFM). HFM exploits fluid drag to profile microflows and to map the permeability of microporous materials. In this technique, an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is scanned close to a microporous sample surface. The hydrodynamic interactions arising from a pressure-driven flow through the sample are then detected by mapping the deflection of an AFM cantilever. For gas flows at atmospheric pressure, HFM has been shown to achieve a velocity sensitivity of 1 cm/s with a spatial resolution of ~ 10 nm. This compares very favorably to established techniques such as hot-wire and laser Doppler anemometry, whose spatial resolutions typically exceed 1 μm and which may rely on the use of tracer particles or flow markers. We demonstrate that HFM can successfully profile Poiseuille flows inside pores as small as 100 nm and can distinguish Poiseuille flow from uniform flow for short entry lengths. HFM detection of fluid jets escaping from porous samples can also reveal a "permeability map" of a sample’s pore structure, allowing us to distinguish between clear and blocked pores, even in cases where the subsurface fouling is undetectable by conventional AFM. The experimental data is discussed in context with theoretical aspects of HFM microflow measurement and practical limits of this technique. Finally, we conclude with variations of standard HFM techniques that show some promise for investigation of smaller nanometer-scale flows of gases and liquids.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineOptical Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorManne, Srinivasen_US
dc.contributor.chairManne, Srinivasen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberManne, Srinivasen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMilster, Thomasen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWright, Ewanen_US
dc.identifier.proquest2869en_US
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