The Transmission, Detection and Occurrence of Viruses on Indoor Environmental Fomites

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/194991
Title:
The Transmission, Detection and Occurrence of Viruses on Indoor Environmental Fomites
Author:
Boone, Stephanie
Issue Date:
2005
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Viruses cause 60% of human infections and are probably the most common cause of infectious disease acquired indoors. Rapid spread of viral illness in indoor establishments facilitates disease morbidity and mortality. The goal of this dissertation is to clarify the role of fomites in the viral infection cycle. Research methods include investigation of published literature, and the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viral detection. The Appendix A study reviewed published literature to assess the significance of fomites in the transmission of ten common respiratory and enteric viruses (rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A, parainfluenza 1 (HPIV1), coronavirus, rotavirus, calicivirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), astrovirus and adenovirus). Results suggest that fomites play an important role in the transmission of common viral pathogens, and the use of disinfectants may limit the spread of viral disease. The Appendix B study examined PCR primer detection limits by determining the time length viruses can be isolated on fomites. Results indicated that poliovirus 1 and hepatitis A virus could be detected for up to 60 days. Parainfluenza 1 virus isolation yielded detection at 30 days and 50 days. Norovirus isolation yielded detection at 20 days and 30 days. Influenza virus isolation results were inconsistent, yielding no initial detection and detection up to 20 days. Appendix C assessed the occurrence of human parainfluenza 1 virus (HPIV1) on surfaces in office settings. HPIV1 was detected on 37% of fomites. HPIV1 was detected most on desktops (47%), and least on light switches (19%). Study results indicated a statistically significant difference between positive fomites in different buildings (Chi-square p < 0.011), and between building cubicles and conference room fomites (Chi-square p < 0.011). Appendix D evaluated the prevalence of influenza A virus on surfaces in day care and home settings. Influenza A was isolated on 23% of fall day care fomites and 53% of spring day care fomites. Influenza was isolated on 59% of home fomites sampled during March, and no influenza was detected on home fomites sampled during the summer. Overall, Influenza A virus was isolated on over 50% of fomites in homes and day care centers.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
viruses; fomites; pcr; infectious disease; indoor surfaces
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Soil, Water & Environmental Science; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Gerba, Charles P
Committee Chair:
Gerba, Charles P

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleThe Transmission, Detection and Occurrence of Viruses on Indoor Environmental Fomitesen_US
dc.creatorBoone, Stephanieen_US
dc.contributor.authorBoone, Stephanieen_US
dc.date.issued2005en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractViruses cause 60% of human infections and are probably the most common cause of infectious disease acquired indoors. Rapid spread of viral illness in indoor establishments facilitates disease morbidity and mortality. The goal of this dissertation is to clarify the role of fomites in the viral infection cycle. Research methods include investigation of published literature, and the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viral detection. The Appendix A study reviewed published literature to assess the significance of fomites in the transmission of ten common respiratory and enteric viruses (rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A, parainfluenza 1 (HPIV1), coronavirus, rotavirus, calicivirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), astrovirus and adenovirus). Results suggest that fomites play an important role in the transmission of common viral pathogens, and the use of disinfectants may limit the spread of viral disease. The Appendix B study examined PCR primer detection limits by determining the time length viruses can be isolated on fomites. Results indicated that poliovirus 1 and hepatitis A virus could be detected for up to 60 days. Parainfluenza 1 virus isolation yielded detection at 30 days and 50 days. Norovirus isolation yielded detection at 20 days and 30 days. Influenza virus isolation results were inconsistent, yielding no initial detection and detection up to 20 days. Appendix C assessed the occurrence of human parainfluenza 1 virus (HPIV1) on surfaces in office settings. HPIV1 was detected on 37% of fomites. HPIV1 was detected most on desktops (47%), and least on light switches (19%). Study results indicated a statistically significant difference between positive fomites in different buildings (Chi-square p < 0.011), and between building cubicles and conference room fomites (Chi-square p < 0.011). Appendix D evaluated the prevalence of influenza A virus on surfaces in day care and home settings. Influenza A was isolated on 23% of fall day care fomites and 53% of spring day care fomites. Influenza was isolated on 59% of home fomites sampled during March, and no influenza was detected on home fomites sampled during the summer. Overall, Influenza A virus was isolated on over 50% of fomites in homes and day care centers.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectvirusesen_US
dc.subjectfomitesen_US
dc.subjectpcren_US
dc.subjectinfectious diseaseen_US
dc.subjectindoor surfacesen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineSoil, Water & Environmental Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorGerba, Charles Pen_US
dc.contributor.chairGerba, Charles Pen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPepper, Ianen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberReynolds, Kelleyen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFitzsimmons, Kevinen_US
dc.identifier.proquest1347en_US
dc.identifier.oclc137355158en_US
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