Reversal of Neuropathic Pain with Exercise is Mediated by Endogenous Opioids

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/194833
Title:
Reversal of Neuropathic Pain with Exercise is Mediated by Endogenous Opioids
Author:
Stagg, Nicola Jane
Issue Date:
2007
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Exercise is often prescribed for patients with chronic pain, but there is little objective evidence supporting this recommendation. Therefore, we tested the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on the sensory hypersensitivity produced in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Male rats that underwent unilateral ligation of the L5 and L6 spinal nerves (SNL) were divided into exercise-trained or sedentary groups. Exercise training was performed using a treadmill, beginning 7 days after surgery, and continued 5 days a week for 5 weeks. Animals were exercised 30 min/day, at a speed of 14-16 m/min. Sensory testing was performed 23 hours after exercise training. Typical thermal and tactile hypersensitivity developed within 1 week after surgery. Treadmill training reversed thermal and tactile hypersensitivity in injured animals within 4 weeks, but had no effect on sham-operated or non-operated animals. One week after the cessation of exercise training, tactile hypersensitivity returned.The effects of exercise training on SNL-induced sensory hypersensitivity were reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Naloxone or naloxone methiodide reversed the effects of exercise when administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Immunohistochemistry revealed increased immunostaining for B-endorphin and met-enkephalin in the periaquaductal grey (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) regions of exercise-trained animals compared to sedentary animals. An ELISA immunoassay revealed a 31% increase in PAG B-endorphin content in exercise-trained SNL animals. More BDNF was also present in the brain's of exercise-trained animals compared to sedentary, specifically in the ventromedial hypothalamus, hippocampus, and outer rim of the PAG. Administering a BDNF sequestering agent reversed B-endorphin increases in the PAG of exercise-trained animals. Exercise-trained SNL animals treated with 25 ug BDNF sequestering agent (i.c.v.) had lower tactile thresholds compared to the exercise-trained vehicle group.These results support the recommendation of moderate aerobic exercise for patients suffering from neuropathic pain, and suggest that exercise-induced pain reversal results from the upregulation of endogenous opioids in the brainstem. Additionally, increased BDNF with exercise training may play a role in exercise-induced reversal of neuropathic pain by increasing the expression of endogenous opioids, but this needs to be verified further.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Neuropathic Pain; Exercise; Endogenous Opioids; SNL; Naloxone; BDNF
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Pharmacology & Toxicology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Malan, Jr., T. Philip
Committee Chair:
Malan, Jr., T. Philip

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleReversal of Neuropathic Pain with Exercise is Mediated by Endogenous Opioidsen_US
dc.creatorStagg, Nicola Janeen_US
dc.contributor.authorStagg, Nicola Janeen_US
dc.date.issued2007en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractExercise is often prescribed for patients with chronic pain, but there is little objective evidence supporting this recommendation. Therefore, we tested the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on the sensory hypersensitivity produced in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Male rats that underwent unilateral ligation of the L5 and L6 spinal nerves (SNL) were divided into exercise-trained or sedentary groups. Exercise training was performed using a treadmill, beginning 7 days after surgery, and continued 5 days a week for 5 weeks. Animals were exercised 30 min/day, at a speed of 14-16 m/min. Sensory testing was performed 23 hours after exercise training. Typical thermal and tactile hypersensitivity developed within 1 week after surgery. Treadmill training reversed thermal and tactile hypersensitivity in injured animals within 4 weeks, but had no effect on sham-operated or non-operated animals. One week after the cessation of exercise training, tactile hypersensitivity returned.The effects of exercise training on SNL-induced sensory hypersensitivity were reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Naloxone or naloxone methiodide reversed the effects of exercise when administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Immunohistochemistry revealed increased immunostaining for B-endorphin and met-enkephalin in the periaquaductal grey (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) regions of exercise-trained animals compared to sedentary animals. An ELISA immunoassay revealed a 31% increase in PAG B-endorphin content in exercise-trained SNL animals. More BDNF was also present in the brain's of exercise-trained animals compared to sedentary, specifically in the ventromedial hypothalamus, hippocampus, and outer rim of the PAG. Administering a BDNF sequestering agent reversed B-endorphin increases in the PAG of exercise-trained animals. Exercise-trained SNL animals treated with 25 ug BDNF sequestering agent (i.c.v.) had lower tactile thresholds compared to the exercise-trained vehicle group.These results support the recommendation of moderate aerobic exercise for patients suffering from neuropathic pain, and suggest that exercise-induced pain reversal results from the upregulation of endogenous opioids in the brainstem. Additionally, increased BDNF with exercise training may play a role in exercise-induced reversal of neuropathic pain by increasing the expression of endogenous opioids, but this needs to be verified further.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectNeuropathic Painen_US
dc.subjectExerciseen_US
dc.subjectEndogenous Opioidsen_US
dc.subjectSNLen_US
dc.subjectNaloxoneen_US
dc.subjectBDNFen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMalan, Jr., T. Philipen_US
dc.contributor.chairMalan, Jr., T. Philipen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPorreca, Franken_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFrench, Edward D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHenriksen, Erik J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBell, Iris R.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest2319en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659748181en_US
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