Chemical Reduction of Silicates by Meteorite Impacts and Lightning Strikes

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/194729
Title:
Chemical Reduction of Silicates by Meteorite Impacts and Lightning Strikes
Author:
Sheffer, Abigail Anne
Issue Date:
2007
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
A suite of lightning strike glasses and unmelted starting materials has been studied by electron microscope and Mossbauer spectroscopy to determine Fe oxidation states. Nine of eleven samples are reduced compared to the starting materials; four of the glasses contain Fe0. Only one sample contained evidence of reduction by carbon, and the results support the reduction of Fe as intrinsic to the rapid, high temperature processing during lightning strikes.A thermodynamic modeling code is used to model the formation of moldavite tektites and the reduction of Fe from sediments around the Ries crater. During isentropic cooling from a strong shock, Fe3+ is reduced to Fe2+ at all modeled conditions. The best matches to an average moldavite composition and the compositions of the Bohemian and Bohemian:Radomilice sub-strewn fields occur with a mixture of surface and subsurface sands along a 4500 J/kg-K isentropic cooling path, consistent with an asteroid impact. The Lusatian and Moravian sub-strewn fields are better represented by starting materials of entirely surface sands, consistent with the uppermost layers of surface material having traveled the farthest from the impact.The thermodynamic code is also used to investigate the formation of lunar regolith agglutinates and reduction of Fe to Fe0. Forming Fe0 requires assuming Fe0 is miscible in silicate liquid at elevated temperatures and pressures. When Fe0 is included in the liquid solution, it is stable at modeled conditions. Simple separation of liquid from vapor is not sufficient to reproduce agglutinate glass. When the vapor phase is allowed to partially redeposit and some Fe0 is directly condensed from vapor, the resulting liquid better reproduces mare agglutinate glasses. This model cannot reproduce highland agglutinate glass, because the Al concentration remains too high in the liquid. The best match to mare glass is produced using the <10 µm fraction of the mare soil along the 8000 J/kg-K cooling isentrope at 100 bars, 4370 K with 95% vapor redeposition and 50% of the Fe(g) directly condensed as Fe0. The reduced fulgurite samples and the results of the impact models suggest that Fe reduction is intrinsic to the rapid, high temperature processing of silicates.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Lunar Regolith Agglutinate; Meteorite Impact; Fulgurite; Tektite; Chemical Modeling; Mossbauer Spectroscopy
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Planetary Sciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Melosh, Henry Jay
Committee Chair:
Melosh, Henry Jay

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleChemical Reduction of Silicates by Meteorite Impacts and Lightning Strikesen_US
dc.creatorSheffer, Abigail Anneen_US
dc.contributor.authorSheffer, Abigail Anneen_US
dc.date.issued2007en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractA suite of lightning strike glasses and unmelted starting materials has been studied by electron microscope and Mossbauer spectroscopy to determine Fe oxidation states. Nine of eleven samples are reduced compared to the starting materials; four of the glasses contain Fe0. Only one sample contained evidence of reduction by carbon, and the results support the reduction of Fe as intrinsic to the rapid, high temperature processing during lightning strikes.A thermodynamic modeling code is used to model the formation of moldavite tektites and the reduction of Fe from sediments around the Ries crater. During isentropic cooling from a strong shock, Fe3+ is reduced to Fe2+ at all modeled conditions. The best matches to an average moldavite composition and the compositions of the Bohemian and Bohemian:Radomilice sub-strewn fields occur with a mixture of surface and subsurface sands along a 4500 J/kg-K isentropic cooling path, consistent with an asteroid impact. The Lusatian and Moravian sub-strewn fields are better represented by starting materials of entirely surface sands, consistent with the uppermost layers of surface material having traveled the farthest from the impact.The thermodynamic code is also used to investigate the formation of lunar regolith agglutinates and reduction of Fe to Fe0. Forming Fe0 requires assuming Fe0 is miscible in silicate liquid at elevated temperatures and pressures. When Fe0 is included in the liquid solution, it is stable at modeled conditions. Simple separation of liquid from vapor is not sufficient to reproduce agglutinate glass. When the vapor phase is allowed to partially redeposit and some Fe0 is directly condensed from vapor, the resulting liquid better reproduces mare agglutinate glasses. This model cannot reproduce highland agglutinate glass, because the Al concentration remains too high in the liquid. The best match to mare glass is produced using the <10 µm fraction of the mare soil along the 8000 J/kg-K cooling isentrope at 100 bars, 4370 K with 95% vapor redeposition and 50% of the Fe(g) directly condensed as Fe0. The reduced fulgurite samples and the results of the impact models suggest that Fe reduction is intrinsic to the rapid, high temperature processing of silicates.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectLunar Regolith Agglutinateen_US
dc.subjectMeteorite Impacten_US
dc.subjectFulguriteen_US
dc.subjectTektiteen_US
dc.subjectChemical Modelingen_US
dc.subjectMossbauer Spectroscopyen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePlanetary Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMelosh, Henry Jayen_US
dc.contributor.chairMelosh, Henry Jayen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLauretta, Danteen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPierazzo, Elisabettaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSwindle, Timothyen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBoynton, Williamen_US
dc.identifier.proquest2508en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659748414en_US
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