Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/194706
Title:
Genetic Basis for Arthropod Limb Diversification
Author:
Sewell, William
Issue Date:
2006
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Changes in the morphological character of appendages are essential to arthropod diversification and adaptation to a variety of living conditions. For instance, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster possesses cylindrical, uniramous (unbranched) walking legs that are well suited for terrestrial life, while Triops longicaudatus possesses paddle-like, multiramous (multibranched) limbs adapted to aquatic life. Comparative studies of limb patterning between different species of arthropods suggest that most animals utilize a conserved set of genes to construct a limb. How is this common set of genes used to produce morphological divergence? This question is addressed here by examining the spatiotemporal expression patterns of genes shown to establish distinct domains along the proximodistal (P/D) axis in arthropod species with legs morphologically distinct from Drosophila legs.In this dissertation, I investigate the role of the limb patterning genes, dachshund (dac) and homothorax (hth), in patterning the appendages of the crustacean Triops longicaudatus. I examine the spatiotemporal relationships of the expression of these two essential limb-patterning genes individually and simultaneously with two previously reported leg patterning genes, extradenticle (exd) and Distal-less (Dll). I discovered that Triops dac and hth, as expected, are expressed during leg development. I verified a cell-to-cell association between HTH and nuclear-EXD (n-EXD), a spatial relationship that had only been conjectured to exist outside of Drosophila. This spatial relationship represents an ancient unchangeable constraint on limb patterning. HTH expression reported here in addition to previously reported EXD and DLL expressions suggests a common, early subdivision of the leg into broad proximal and distal domains. However, the reiterated stripes of DAC expression found along the ventral axis do not support establishment of an intermediate leg domain but instead suggest that the ventral branches of the Triops limb are generated by a mechanism of segmentation not previously observed in other arthropod limbs. Additionally, I present a record of my attempts aimed at functional determination of genes believed to specify, pattern, or modify branchiopod appendages. Finally, I demonstrated that dac functions in the dung beetle leg to properly segment the tarsus as well as producing a structural modification, such as spiked protrusions.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
dachshund; homothorax; RNAi; leg; Triops; Onthophagus
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Molecular & Cellular Biology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Nagy, Lisa M

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleGenetic Basis for Arthropod Limb Diversificationen_US
dc.creatorSewell, Williamen_US
dc.contributor.authorSewell, Williamen_US
dc.date.issued2006en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractChanges in the morphological character of appendages are essential to arthropod diversification and adaptation to a variety of living conditions. For instance, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster possesses cylindrical, uniramous (unbranched) walking legs that are well suited for terrestrial life, while Triops longicaudatus possesses paddle-like, multiramous (multibranched) limbs adapted to aquatic life. Comparative studies of limb patterning between different species of arthropods suggest that most animals utilize a conserved set of genes to construct a limb. How is this common set of genes used to produce morphological divergence? This question is addressed here by examining the spatiotemporal expression patterns of genes shown to establish distinct domains along the proximodistal (P/D) axis in arthropod species with legs morphologically distinct from Drosophila legs.In this dissertation, I investigate the role of the limb patterning genes, dachshund (dac) and homothorax (hth), in patterning the appendages of the crustacean Triops longicaudatus. I examine the spatiotemporal relationships of the expression of these two essential limb-patterning genes individually and simultaneously with two previously reported leg patterning genes, extradenticle (exd) and Distal-less (Dll). I discovered that Triops dac and hth, as expected, are expressed during leg development. I verified a cell-to-cell association between HTH and nuclear-EXD (n-EXD), a spatial relationship that had only been conjectured to exist outside of Drosophila. This spatial relationship represents an ancient unchangeable constraint on limb patterning. HTH expression reported here in addition to previously reported EXD and DLL expressions suggests a common, early subdivision of the leg into broad proximal and distal domains. However, the reiterated stripes of DAC expression found along the ventral axis do not support establishment of an intermediate leg domain but instead suggest that the ventral branches of the Triops limb are generated by a mechanism of segmentation not previously observed in other arthropod limbs. Additionally, I present a record of my attempts aimed at functional determination of genes believed to specify, pattern, or modify branchiopod appendages. Finally, I demonstrated that dac functions in the dung beetle leg to properly segment the tarsus as well as producing a structural modification, such as spiked protrusions.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectdachshunden_US
dc.subjecthomothoraxen_US
dc.subjectRNAien_US
dc.subjectlegen_US
dc.subjectTriopsen_US
dc.subjectOnthophagusen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineMolecular & Cellular Biologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorNagy, Lisa Men_US
dc.identifier.proquest1832en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659746359en_US
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