Evaluation of the Effects of Cyclic Ocular Pulse on Conventional Outflow Tissues.

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/194415
Title:
Evaluation of the Effects of Cyclic Ocular Pulse on Conventional Outflow Tissues.
Author:
Ramos, Renata Fortuna
Issue Date:
2008
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
In vivo, biomechanical stress plays an important role in tissue physiology and pathology, affecting cell and tissue behavior. Even though conventional outflow tissues in the eye are constantly exposed to dynamic changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), the effects of such biomechanical stressors on outflow tissue function have not been analyzed. In particular, changes in IOP with each heartbeat have been measured in human eyes approximating 2.7 mmHg/sec. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the effect(s) of ocular pulse on conventional outflow tissue regulation and the effect that contractility plays in this mechanical stress-mediated response. The central hypothesis directing this research is that cyclic intraocular pulsations (i.e. ocular pulse) play a significant role in conventional outflow facility.In order to address our hypothesis we studied the effect of biomechanical stressors on conventional outflow physiology using three different strategies: (1) by comparing conventional outflow endothelial cells to blood and lymphatic capillary endothelia, we gained a better understanding of the effects of biomechanical stress on conventional outflow tissue physiology, (2) by modifying the anterior segment perfusion model, we were able to measure the effect of ocular pulse on conventional outflow facility, and (3) by exposing trabecular meshwork cell monolayers to cyclic biomechanical pressure oscillations in the presence of compounds known to affect trabecular meshwork contractility, we were able to analyze the effect of rho-kinase-mediated contractility on the ocular pulse-associated response.Perfused human and porcine anterior segments showed a significant ocular pulse-mediated decrease in outflow facility; in addition, perfused trabecular meshwork monolayers showed an increase in intra-chamber pressure when exposed to cyclic pressure oscillations. This effect was blocked by Y27632 inhibition of rho-kinase-mediated contraction.In conclusion, the work shown in this dissertation demonstrates for the first time that trabecular outflow tissues are capable of responding to a physiologically-relevant cyclic biomechanical stress. This response can be observed as an increase in outflow resistance that translates to lower baselines in outflow facility of anterior segments and lower hydraulic conductivity of trabecular meshwork monolayers. In addition, we concluded that the observed ocular pulse-mediated response of trabecular meshwork cells is regulated by rho-kinase-induced contractility.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
ocular pulse; cyclic biomechanical stress; outflow tissues; trabecular meshwork; intraocular pressure; Rho kinase
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Biomedical Engineering; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Committee Chair:
Stamer, W. Daniel

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleEvaluation of the Effects of Cyclic Ocular Pulse on Conventional Outflow Tissues.en_US
dc.creatorRamos, Renata Fortunaen_US
dc.contributor.authorRamos, Renata Fortunaen_US
dc.date.issued2008en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractIn vivo, biomechanical stress plays an important role in tissue physiology and pathology, affecting cell and tissue behavior. Even though conventional outflow tissues in the eye are constantly exposed to dynamic changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), the effects of such biomechanical stressors on outflow tissue function have not been analyzed. In particular, changes in IOP with each heartbeat have been measured in human eyes approximating 2.7 mmHg/sec. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the effect(s) of ocular pulse on conventional outflow tissue regulation and the effect that contractility plays in this mechanical stress-mediated response. The central hypothesis directing this research is that cyclic intraocular pulsations (i.e. ocular pulse) play a significant role in conventional outflow facility.In order to address our hypothesis we studied the effect of biomechanical stressors on conventional outflow physiology using three different strategies: (1) by comparing conventional outflow endothelial cells to blood and lymphatic capillary endothelia, we gained a better understanding of the effects of biomechanical stress on conventional outflow tissue physiology, (2) by modifying the anterior segment perfusion model, we were able to measure the effect of ocular pulse on conventional outflow facility, and (3) by exposing trabecular meshwork cell monolayers to cyclic biomechanical pressure oscillations in the presence of compounds known to affect trabecular meshwork contractility, we were able to analyze the effect of rho-kinase-mediated contractility on the ocular pulse-associated response.Perfused human and porcine anterior segments showed a significant ocular pulse-mediated decrease in outflow facility; in addition, perfused trabecular meshwork monolayers showed an increase in intra-chamber pressure when exposed to cyclic pressure oscillations. This effect was blocked by Y27632 inhibition of rho-kinase-mediated contraction.In conclusion, the work shown in this dissertation demonstrates for the first time that trabecular outflow tissues are capable of responding to a physiologically-relevant cyclic biomechanical stress. This response can be observed as an increase in outflow resistance that translates to lower baselines in outflow facility of anterior segments and lower hydraulic conductivity of trabecular meshwork monolayers. In addition, we concluded that the observed ocular pulse-mediated response of trabecular meshwork cells is regulated by rho-kinase-induced contractility.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectocular pulseen_US
dc.subjectcyclic biomechanical stressen_US
dc.subjectoutflow tissuesen_US
dc.subjecttrabecular meshworken_US
dc.subjectintraocular pressureen_US
dc.subjectRho kinaseen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiomedical Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.chairStamer, W. Danielen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStamer, W. Danielen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBaldwin, Annen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBarker, Stevenen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBrooks, Heddwenen_US
dc.identifier.proquest2626en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659749615en_US
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