Ethonafide-Induced Cytotoxicity is Mediated by Topoisomerase II Inhibition in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/194367
Title:
Ethonafide-Induced Cytotoxicity is Mediated by Topoisomerase II Inhibition in Human Prostate Cancer Cells
Author:
Pourpak, Alan
Issue Date:
2006
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Ethonafide is an anthracene-containing derivative of amonafide that belongs to the azonafide series of anticancer agents. The lack of cross-resistance in MDR-expressing cancer cell lines and the absence of a quinone and hydroquinone moiety make ethonafide a possible less-cardiotoxic replacement for existing anthracene-containing anticancer agents, such as mitoxantrone and doxorubicin. For this study, we investigated the anticancer activity and mechanism of action of ethonafide in human prostate cancer cell lines. Ethonafide was cytotoxic against three human prostate cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. Ethonafide was also found to be better tolerated and more effective at inhibiting tumor growth compared to mitoxantrone in DU 145 prostate cancer-bearing mice. Mechanistically, we found that ethonafide inhibits topoisomerase II activity in human prostate cancer cell lines and equally inhibits purified topoisomerase IIα and recombinant topoisomerase IIβ. The inhibition of topoisomerase II activity was due to stabilization of the cleavable complex, involving both topoisomerase IIα and β. By creating stable DU 145 cell lines with decreased expression of either topoisomerase IIα or β, we found that topoisomerase IIα is necessary for ethonafide-induced cytotoxicity. The decrease in sensitivity to ethonafide was due to a decrease in DNA damage and an increase in DNA repair as measured by the neutral comet assay. Additionally, ethonafide induces potent G₂ cell cycle arrest in the DU 145 human prostate cancer cell line. Ethonafide also induces apoptosis as measured by procaspase and PARP cleavage. In conclusion, we have identified ethonafide as a topoisomerase II poison and determined that it is topoisomerase IIα-specific in the DU 145 human prostate cancer cell line. Due to ethonafide’s activity in vitro and in vivo, decreased toxicity in mice compared to mitoxantrone, and its activity in multi-drug resistant cancer cell lines, ethonafide may be a suitable replacement to mitoxantrone for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Ethonafide; Topoisomerase II; Prostate cancer
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Pharmacology & Toxicology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Dorr, Robert T
Committee Chair:
Dorr, Robert T

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleEthonafide-Induced Cytotoxicity is Mediated by Topoisomerase II Inhibition in Human Prostate Cancer Cellsen_US
dc.creatorPourpak, Alanen_US
dc.contributor.authorPourpak, Alanen_US
dc.date.issued2006en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractEthonafide is an anthracene-containing derivative of amonafide that belongs to the azonafide series of anticancer agents. The lack of cross-resistance in MDR-expressing cancer cell lines and the absence of a quinone and hydroquinone moiety make ethonafide a possible less-cardiotoxic replacement for existing anthracene-containing anticancer agents, such as mitoxantrone and doxorubicin. For this study, we investigated the anticancer activity and mechanism of action of ethonafide in human prostate cancer cell lines. Ethonafide was cytotoxic against three human prostate cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. Ethonafide was also found to be better tolerated and more effective at inhibiting tumor growth compared to mitoxantrone in DU 145 prostate cancer-bearing mice. Mechanistically, we found that ethonafide inhibits topoisomerase II activity in human prostate cancer cell lines and equally inhibits purified topoisomerase IIα and recombinant topoisomerase IIβ. The inhibition of topoisomerase II activity was due to stabilization of the cleavable complex, involving both topoisomerase IIα and β. By creating stable DU 145 cell lines with decreased expression of either topoisomerase IIα or β, we found that topoisomerase IIα is necessary for ethonafide-induced cytotoxicity. The decrease in sensitivity to ethonafide was due to a decrease in DNA damage and an increase in DNA repair as measured by the neutral comet assay. Additionally, ethonafide induces potent G₂ cell cycle arrest in the DU 145 human prostate cancer cell line. Ethonafide also induces apoptosis as measured by procaspase and PARP cleavage. In conclusion, we have identified ethonafide as a topoisomerase II poison and determined that it is topoisomerase IIα-specific in the DU 145 human prostate cancer cell line. Due to ethonafide’s activity in vitro and in vivo, decreased toxicity in mice compared to mitoxantrone, and its activity in multi-drug resistant cancer cell lines, ethonafide may be a suitable replacement to mitoxantrone for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectEthonafideen_US
dc.subjectTopoisomerase IIen_US
dc.subjectProstate canceren_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorDorr, Robert Ten_US
dc.contributor.chairDorr, Robert Ten_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBowden, G. Timothyen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMartinez, Jesse D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStratton, Steven P.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberVaillancourt, Richard R.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest1940en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659746507en_US
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