Nonhuman Primate Milk Composition: Relationship to Phylogeny, Ontogeny, and Ecology

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/194078
Title:
Nonhuman Primate Milk Composition: Relationship to Phylogeny, Ontogeny, and Ecology
Author:
Milligan, Lauren Anne
Issue Date:
2007
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
This dissertation provides a comprehensive and systematic examination of anthropoid primate milk composition and its relationship to a species' evolutionary history, ecological context, and life history strategy. Milk samples from 14 species of anthropoid primate (Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla beringei beringei, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Macaca sinica, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus) were analyzed for proximate composition (fat, protein, lactose, dry matter, and minerals) and milk fatty acid composition. The objectives of this study were identification of primitive features in anthropoid milks, shared-derived features of anthropoid families or superfamilies, and unique-derived features of species, including Homo sapiens.Results did not support the null hypothesis of a generalized anthropoid milk composition. Variation among anthropoids in milk fatty acid profiles and proximate milk composition was influenced by phylogeny and the life history strategy of the species, as well as the diet and environment (captive or wild living) of the mother.Maternal diet had a direct influence on fatty acid profiles and created distinct groupings of wild and captive living individuals. Phylogenetic patterns were identified within captive and wild groups, particularly a distinction between milk fatty acid profiles of hominoids (including humans) and monkeys.Significant variation in proximate milk composition was identified at the level of the superfamily. Cercopithecoid milk was highest in mean fat, dry matter, the proportion of energy from fat, and total gross energy. Ceboid milk was highest in mean protein and the proportion of energy from protein. Hominoid milks were lowest in mean fat, protein, dry matter, the proportion of energy from fat, and total gross energy.Hominoid milk also was lowest in the degree of plasticity in milk composition. Milk of captive living monkeys was higher than milk of wild living monkeys in mean fat, percent energy from fat, and total gross energy. Milk fat and energy also were highly variable within captive living monkeys. In contrast, fat and total gross energy were not significantly different between captive and wild living hominoids and were less variabile among captive living hominoids as compared to monkeys. The lack of variability and the relatively low energy values in hominoid milk suggest that it may be buffered against environmental fluctations. Larger body size and a longer duration of lactation may permit hominoids, including humans, to decouple maternal condition from milk energy and instead relying on energy storage.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Lactation; primate; life history; milk composition; human evolution
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Anthropology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Stiner, Mary C.
Committee Chair:
Stiner, Mary C.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleNonhuman Primate Milk Composition: Relationship to Phylogeny, Ontogeny, and Ecologyen_US
dc.creatorMilligan, Lauren Anneen_US
dc.contributor.authorMilligan, Lauren Anneen_US
dc.date.issued2007en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThis dissertation provides a comprehensive and systematic examination of anthropoid primate milk composition and its relationship to a species' evolutionary history, ecological context, and life history strategy. Milk samples from 14 species of anthropoid primate (Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla beringei beringei, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Macaca sinica, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus) were analyzed for proximate composition (fat, protein, lactose, dry matter, and minerals) and milk fatty acid composition. The objectives of this study were identification of primitive features in anthropoid milks, shared-derived features of anthropoid families or superfamilies, and unique-derived features of species, including Homo sapiens.Results did not support the null hypothesis of a generalized anthropoid milk composition. Variation among anthropoids in milk fatty acid profiles and proximate milk composition was influenced by phylogeny and the life history strategy of the species, as well as the diet and environment (captive or wild living) of the mother.Maternal diet had a direct influence on fatty acid profiles and created distinct groupings of wild and captive living individuals. Phylogenetic patterns were identified within captive and wild groups, particularly a distinction between milk fatty acid profiles of hominoids (including humans) and monkeys.Significant variation in proximate milk composition was identified at the level of the superfamily. Cercopithecoid milk was highest in mean fat, dry matter, the proportion of energy from fat, and total gross energy. Ceboid milk was highest in mean protein and the proportion of energy from protein. Hominoid milks were lowest in mean fat, protein, dry matter, the proportion of energy from fat, and total gross energy.Hominoid milk also was lowest in the degree of plasticity in milk composition. Milk of captive living monkeys was higher than milk of wild living monkeys in mean fat, percent energy from fat, and total gross energy. Milk fat and energy also were highly variable within captive living monkeys. In contrast, fat and total gross energy were not significantly different between captive and wild living hominoids and were less variabile among captive living hominoids as compared to monkeys. The lack of variability and the relatively low energy values in hominoid milk suggest that it may be buffered against environmental fluctations. Larger body size and a longer duration of lactation may permit hominoids, including humans, to decouple maternal condition from milk energy and instead relying on energy storage.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectLactationen_US
dc.subjectprimateen_US
dc.subjectlife historyen_US
dc.subjectmilk compositionen_US
dc.subjecthuman evolutionen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineAnthropologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorStiner, Mary C.en_US
dc.contributor.chairStiner, Mary C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStiner, Mary C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMorbeck, Mary Ellenen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPike, Ivy L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStini, William A.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest2268en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659748110en_US
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