Molecular Design of Electrode Surfaces and Interfaces: For Optimized Charge Transfer at Transparent Conducting Oxide Electrodes and Spectroelectrochemical Sensing

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/193952
Title:
Molecular Design of Electrode Surfaces and Interfaces: For Optimized Charge Transfer at Transparent Conducting Oxide Electrodes and Spectroelectrochemical Sensing
Author:
Marikkar, Fathima Saneeha
Issue Date:
2006
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
This dissertation has focused on i) optimizing charge transfer rates at indium-tinoxide (ITO) electrodes, and ii) characterization of the supramolecular structure and properties of ultra thin surface modifier films on modified electrodes for various device applications. Commercial ITO surfaces were modified using conducting polymer thin film architectures with and without various chemical activation procedures. Ferrocene derivatives were used as redox probes, which showed dramatic changes in electron transfer rate as the SA-PANI/PAA layers were added to the ITO surface. Highest rates of electron transfer were observed for DMFc, whose oxidation potential coincides with the potential region where these SA-PANI/PAA films reach their optimal electroactivity. Apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants, kS, measured voltammetrically, were ca.10 x higher for SA-PANI/PAA films on ITO, versus clean ITO substrates. These films also showed linear potentiometric responses with retention of the ITO transparency with the capability to create smoothest films using an aqueous deposition protocol, which proved important in other applications. ITO electrodes were also modified via chemisorption of carboxy functionalized EDOTCA and electropolymerization of PEDOTCA/PEDOT copolymers, when properly optimized for thickness and structure, enhance voltammetrically determined electron transfer rates (kS) to solution probe molecules, such as dimethylferrocene (DMFc). Values of kS ≥ 0.4 cm•sec⁻¹, were determined, approaching rates seen on clean gold surfaces. ITO activation combined with formation of these co-polymer films has the effect of enhancing the electroactive fraction of electrode surface, versus a non-activated, unmodified ITO electrode, which acts as a “blocked” electrode. The electroactivity and spectroelectrochemistry of these films helped to resolve the electron transfer rate mechanism and enabled the construction of models in combination with AFM, XPS, UPS and RAIRS studies. The surface topography, structure, composition, work function and contact angle, also revealed other desirable properties for molecular electronic devices. The carboxylic functionality of the EDOTCA molecule adds more desirable properties compared to normal PEDOT films, such as favoring the deposition of smooth films, increasing the optical contrast, participating in hydrogen-bonding, chemisorption to oxide surface, self-doping and providing a linker for incorporation of different functional groups, new molecules, or nanoparticles. Periodic sub-micron electrode arrays can be created using micro-contact printing and electropolymerization. The sinusoidal modulation of the refractive index of such confined conducting polymer nanostructures or nanoparticle stripes allows efficient visible light diffraction. The modulation of the diffraction efficiency at PANI and PEDOT gratings in the presence of an analytical stimulus such as pH or potential demonstrate the sensing capability at these surfaces. The template stripped gold surfaces that are being developed in our lab demonstrate several advantages over commercially available evaporated gold films especially for nanoscale surface modification.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Electrode Surface Modification & Sub-Micron Patterning; Conducting Polymer; Optimizing Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes; Diffraction Based Sensors; Electron Transfer Enhancement at Partially Blocked Electrodes; Electroactive Wiring
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Chemistry; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Armstrong, Neal R.
Committee Chair:
Armstrong, Neal R.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleMolecular Design of Electrode Surfaces and Interfaces: For Optimized Charge Transfer at Transparent Conducting Oxide Electrodes and Spectroelectrochemical Sensingen_US
dc.creatorMarikkar, Fathima Saneehaen_US
dc.contributor.authorMarikkar, Fathima Saneehaen_US
dc.date.issued2006en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThis dissertation has focused on i) optimizing charge transfer rates at indium-tinoxide (ITO) electrodes, and ii) characterization of the supramolecular structure and properties of ultra thin surface modifier films on modified electrodes for various device applications. Commercial ITO surfaces were modified using conducting polymer thin film architectures with and without various chemical activation procedures. Ferrocene derivatives were used as redox probes, which showed dramatic changes in electron transfer rate as the SA-PANI/PAA layers were added to the ITO surface. Highest rates of electron transfer were observed for DMFc, whose oxidation potential coincides with the potential region where these SA-PANI/PAA films reach their optimal electroactivity. Apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants, kS, measured voltammetrically, were ca.10 x higher for SA-PANI/PAA films on ITO, versus clean ITO substrates. These films also showed linear potentiometric responses with retention of the ITO transparency with the capability to create smoothest films using an aqueous deposition protocol, which proved important in other applications. ITO electrodes were also modified via chemisorption of carboxy functionalized EDOTCA and electropolymerization of PEDOTCA/PEDOT copolymers, when properly optimized for thickness and structure, enhance voltammetrically determined electron transfer rates (kS) to solution probe molecules, such as dimethylferrocene (DMFc). Values of kS ≥ 0.4 cm•sec⁻¹, were determined, approaching rates seen on clean gold surfaces. ITO activation combined with formation of these co-polymer films has the effect of enhancing the electroactive fraction of electrode surface, versus a non-activated, unmodified ITO electrode, which acts as a “blocked” electrode. The electroactivity and spectroelectrochemistry of these films helped to resolve the electron transfer rate mechanism and enabled the construction of models in combination with AFM, XPS, UPS and RAIRS studies. The surface topography, structure, composition, work function and contact angle, also revealed other desirable properties for molecular electronic devices. The carboxylic functionality of the EDOTCA molecule adds more desirable properties compared to normal PEDOT films, such as favoring the deposition of smooth films, increasing the optical contrast, participating in hydrogen-bonding, chemisorption to oxide surface, self-doping and providing a linker for incorporation of different functional groups, new molecules, or nanoparticles. Periodic sub-micron electrode arrays can be created using micro-contact printing and electropolymerization. The sinusoidal modulation of the refractive index of such confined conducting polymer nanostructures or nanoparticle stripes allows efficient visible light diffraction. The modulation of the diffraction efficiency at PANI and PEDOT gratings in the presence of an analytical stimulus such as pH or potential demonstrate the sensing capability at these surfaces. The template stripped gold surfaces that are being developed in our lab demonstrate several advantages over commercially available evaporated gold films especially for nanoscale surface modification.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectElectrode Surface Modification & Sub-Micron Patterningen_US
dc.subjectConducting Polymeren_US
dc.subjectOptimizing Indium Tin Oxide Electrodesen_US
dc.subjectDiffraction Based Sensorsen_US
dc.subjectElectron Transfer Enhancement at Partially Blocked Electrodesen_US
dc.subjectElectroactive Wiringen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemistryen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorArmstrong, Neal R.en_US
dc.contributor.chairArmstrong, Neal R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberArmstrong, Neal R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPemberton, Jeanne E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberEvans, Dennis H.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberEnemark, John H.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPyun, Jeffreyen_US
dc.identifier.proquest1820en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659746371en_US
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