Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/193729
Title:
Infrared Stokes Polarimetry and Spectropolarimetry
Author:
Kudenov, Michael W.
Issue Date:
2009
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
In this work, three methods of measuring the polarization state of light in the thermal infrared (3-12 microns) are modeled, simulated, calibrated and experimentally verified in the laboratory. The first utilizes the method of channeled spectropolarimetry (CP) to encode the Stokes polarization parameters onto the optical power spectrum. This channeled spectral technique is implemented with the use of two Yttrium Vanadate (YVO4) crystal retarders. A basic mathematical model for the system is presented, showing that all the Stokes parameters are directly present in the interferogram. Theoretical results are compared with real data from the system, an improved model is provided to simulate the effects of absorption within the crystal, and a modified calibration technique is introduced to account for this absorption. Lastly, effects due to interferometer instabilities on the reconstructions, including nonuniform sampling and interferogram translations, are investigated and techniques are employed to mitigate them.Second is the method of prismatic imaging polarimetry (PIP), which can be envisioned as the monochromatic application of channeled spectropolarimetry. Unlike CP, PIP encodes the 2-dimensional Stokes parameters in a scene onto spatial carrier frequencies. However, the calibration techniques derived in the infrared for CP are extremely similar to that of the PIP. Consequently, the PIP technique is implemented with a set of four YVO4 crystal prisms. A mathematical model for the polarimeter is presented in which diattenuation due to Fresnel effects and dichroism in the crystal are included. An improved polarimetric calibration technique is introduced to remove the diattenuation effects, along with the relative radiometric calibration required for the BPIP operating with a thermal background and large detector offsets. Data demonstrating emission polarization are presented from various blackbodies, which are compared to data from our Fourier transform infrared spectropolarimeter. Additionally, limitations in the PIP technique with regards to the spectral bandwidth and F/# of the imaging system are analyzed. A model able to predict the carrier frequency's fringe visibility is produced and experimentally verified, further reinforcing the PIP's limitations.The last technique is significantly different from CP or PIP and involves the simulation and calibration of a thermal infrared division of amplitude imaging Stokes polarimeter. For the first time, application of microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) technology to polarimetry is demonstrated. The sensor utilizes a wire-grid beamsplitter with imaging systems positioned at each output to analyze two orthogonal linear polarization states simultaneously. Combined with a form birefringent wave plate, the system is capable of snapshot imaging polarimetry in any one Stokes vector (S1, S2 or S3). Radiometric and polarimetric calibration procedures for the instrument are provided and the reduction matrices from the calibration are compared to rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) and raytracing simulations. The design and optimization of the sensor's wire-grid beam splitter and wave plate are presented, along with their corresponding prescriptions. Polarimetric calibration error due to the spectrally broadband nature of the instrument is also overviewed. Image registration techniques for the sensor are discussed and data from the instrument are presented, demonstrating a microbolometer's ability to measure the small intensity variations corresponding to polarized emission in natural environments.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Infrared; microbolometer; polarimetry; prismatic; spectropolarimetry; Stokes
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Optical Sciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Dereniak, Eustace L.
Committee Chair:
Dereniak, Eustace L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleInfrared Stokes Polarimetry and Spectropolarimetryen_US
dc.creatorKudenov, Michael W.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKudenov, Michael W.en_US
dc.date.issued2009en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractIn this work, three methods of measuring the polarization state of light in the thermal infrared (3-12 microns) are modeled, simulated, calibrated and experimentally verified in the laboratory. The first utilizes the method of channeled spectropolarimetry (CP) to encode the Stokes polarization parameters onto the optical power spectrum. This channeled spectral technique is implemented with the use of two Yttrium Vanadate (YVO4) crystal retarders. A basic mathematical model for the system is presented, showing that all the Stokes parameters are directly present in the interferogram. Theoretical results are compared with real data from the system, an improved model is provided to simulate the effects of absorption within the crystal, and a modified calibration technique is introduced to account for this absorption. Lastly, effects due to interferometer instabilities on the reconstructions, including nonuniform sampling and interferogram translations, are investigated and techniques are employed to mitigate them.Second is the method of prismatic imaging polarimetry (PIP), which can be envisioned as the monochromatic application of channeled spectropolarimetry. Unlike CP, PIP encodes the 2-dimensional Stokes parameters in a scene onto spatial carrier frequencies. However, the calibration techniques derived in the infrared for CP are extremely similar to that of the PIP. Consequently, the PIP technique is implemented with a set of four YVO4 crystal prisms. A mathematical model for the polarimeter is presented in which diattenuation due to Fresnel effects and dichroism in the crystal are included. An improved polarimetric calibration technique is introduced to remove the diattenuation effects, along with the relative radiometric calibration required for the BPIP operating with a thermal background and large detector offsets. Data demonstrating emission polarization are presented from various blackbodies, which are compared to data from our Fourier transform infrared spectropolarimeter. Additionally, limitations in the PIP technique with regards to the spectral bandwidth and F/# of the imaging system are analyzed. A model able to predict the carrier frequency's fringe visibility is produced and experimentally verified, further reinforcing the PIP's limitations.The last technique is significantly different from CP or PIP and involves the simulation and calibration of a thermal infrared division of amplitude imaging Stokes polarimeter. For the first time, application of microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) technology to polarimetry is demonstrated. The sensor utilizes a wire-grid beamsplitter with imaging systems positioned at each output to analyze two orthogonal linear polarization states simultaneously. Combined with a form birefringent wave plate, the system is capable of snapshot imaging polarimetry in any one Stokes vector (S1, S2 or S3). Radiometric and polarimetric calibration procedures for the instrument are provided and the reduction matrices from the calibration are compared to rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) and raytracing simulations. The design and optimization of the sensor's wire-grid beam splitter and wave plate are presented, along with their corresponding prescriptions. Polarimetric calibration error due to the spectrally broadband nature of the instrument is also overviewed. Image registration techniques for the sensor are discussed and data from the instrument are presented, demonstrating a microbolometer's ability to measure the small intensity variations corresponding to polarized emission in natural environments.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectInfrareden_US
dc.subjectmicrobolometeren_US
dc.subjectpolarimetryen_US
dc.subjectprismaticen_US
dc.subjectspectropolarimetryen_US
dc.subjectStokesen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineOptical Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorDereniak, Eustace L.en_US
dc.contributor.chairDereniak, Eustace L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberTyo, J. Scotten_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMacleod, Angusen_US
dc.identifier.proquest10242en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659750839en_US
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