Glycosylating Enkephalins: Design, Glycosylation Using Sugar Acetates in the Preparation of Glycosyl Amino Acids for Glycopeptide Syntheses, Binding at the Opioid Receptors and Analgesic Effects

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/193652
Title:
Glycosylating Enkephalins: Design, Glycosylation Using Sugar Acetates in the Preparation of Glycosyl Amino Acids for Glycopeptide Syntheses, Binding at the Opioid Receptors and Analgesic Effects
Author:
Keyari, Charles Mambo
Issue Date:
2007
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Improved procedures for the glycosylation of serine and threonine utilizing Schiff base activation are reported. The procedures are less expensive and more efficient alternatives to previously published methods. The Schiff bases exhibited ring-chain tautomerism in CDCl₃ as shown by ¹H NMR. Acting as glycosyl acceptors, the Schiff bases reacted at RT with simple sugar peracetate donors with BF₃•OEt₂ promotion to provide the corresponding protected amino acid glycosides in good yields. With microwave irradiation, the reactions were complete in 2-5 minutes. Glycosylation with the dipeptide Schiff base shows the potential of this method in the preparation of peptide building blocks. To investigate this reaction further, direct glycosylation of sugar acetates with FMOC-Ser-OH/OBZl under BF₃•OEt₂ promotion in a microwave provided glycosides in high yield. In addition to the expected glycoside products acetylated side products resulting from acetate migration were isolated, suggesting that activation of the anomeric sugar acetates with a Lewis acid such BF₃•OEt₂ led to an oxocarbenium ion, which rearranged to a 1,2-dioxocarbenium ion because of the acetate participating group at C-2. Solvent participation was also illustrated with acetate migration being more pronounced when CH₃CN was used as a solvent and resulted in less product yield and higher amounts of the acetylated product. The acyl transfer products in these reactions where sugar acetates serve as glycosyl donors is reported for the first time, which also implies that ortho-ester like intermediates are important in the reaction mechanism. Keeping the message segment constant in the sequence H-Tyr-DThr-Gly-Phe-Leu- Ser-CO-NH₂ and modification of the address segment with different carbohydrate moieties had little effect on selectivity for binding at the μ, δ, or κ-opiod receptors. However, substitution of D-threonine with D-serine or the less polar D-alanine in the message segment resulted in a loss of κ-receptor affinity. Further replacement of D-threonine with the more hydrophobic D-valine resulted in complete loss of κ-binding affinity generating pure μ-δ agonists. These data suggests that changes in the message segment of the pharmacophore results in the glycopeptide adopting a conformation that is less favorable for 􀀁-binding receptor activity. Finally, the peripheral administration and i.c.v. tests of the drugs suggest that modifications in the message segment of the pharmacophore influences the potency of these compounds.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Schiff base; glycopeptides; glycosylation; sugar peracetates; Lewis acid; opioid receptors
Degree Name:
PhD
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Chemistry; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Committee Chair:
Polt, Robin L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.titleGlycosylating Enkephalins: Design, Glycosylation Using Sugar Acetates in the Preparation of Glycosyl Amino Acids for Glycopeptide Syntheses, Binding at the Opioid Receptors and Analgesic Effectsen_US
dc.creatorKeyari, Charles Mamboen_US
dc.contributor.authorKeyari, Charles Mamboen_US
dc.date.issued2007en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractImproved procedures for the glycosylation of serine and threonine utilizing Schiff base activation are reported. The procedures are less expensive and more efficient alternatives to previously published methods. The Schiff bases exhibited ring-chain tautomerism in CDCl₃ as shown by ¹H NMR. Acting as glycosyl acceptors, the Schiff bases reacted at RT with simple sugar peracetate donors with BF₃•OEt₂ promotion to provide the corresponding protected amino acid glycosides in good yields. With microwave irradiation, the reactions were complete in 2-5 minutes. Glycosylation with the dipeptide Schiff base shows the potential of this method in the preparation of peptide building blocks. To investigate this reaction further, direct glycosylation of sugar acetates with FMOC-Ser-OH/OBZl under BF₃•OEt₂ promotion in a microwave provided glycosides in high yield. In addition to the expected glycoside products acetylated side products resulting from acetate migration were isolated, suggesting that activation of the anomeric sugar acetates with a Lewis acid such BF₃•OEt₂ led to an oxocarbenium ion, which rearranged to a 1,2-dioxocarbenium ion because of the acetate participating group at C-2. Solvent participation was also illustrated with acetate migration being more pronounced when CH₃CN was used as a solvent and resulted in less product yield and higher amounts of the acetylated product. The acyl transfer products in these reactions where sugar acetates serve as glycosyl donors is reported for the first time, which also implies that ortho-ester like intermediates are important in the reaction mechanism. Keeping the message segment constant in the sequence H-Tyr-DThr-Gly-Phe-Leu- Ser-CO-NH₂ and modification of the address segment with different carbohydrate moieties had little effect on selectivity for binding at the μ, δ, or κ-opiod receptors. However, substitution of D-threonine with D-serine or the less polar D-alanine in the message segment resulted in a loss of κ-receptor affinity. Further replacement of D-threonine with the more hydrophobic D-valine resulted in complete loss of κ-binding affinity generating pure μ-δ agonists. These data suggests that changes in the message segment of the pharmacophore results in the glycopeptide adopting a conformation that is less favorable for 􀀁-binding receptor activity. Finally, the peripheral administration and i.c.v. tests of the drugs suggest that modifications in the message segment of the pharmacophore influences the potency of these compounds.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectSchiff baseen_US
dc.subjectglycopeptidesen_US
dc.subjectglycosylationen_US
dc.subjectsugar peracetatesen_US
dc.subjectLewis aciden_US
dc.subjectopioid receptorsen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemistryen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.chairPolt, Robin L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHruby, Victor J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMash, Jr., Eugene A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBrown, Michaelen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberZheng, Zhipingen_US
dc.identifier.proquest2071en_US
dc.identifier.oclc659747179en_US
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