Sleep Disturbance Following September 11: Results of a Nationwide Longitudinal Study

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/193631
Title:
Sleep Disturbance Following September 11: Results of a Nationwide Longitudinal Study
Author:
Bailey, Elaine T.
Issue Date:
2006
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, provided a unique, though unfortunate, opportunity to study Americans' sleep reactions to a traumatic event. Questionnaires were distributed electronically to a web-based panel whose demographic distribution closely matched current U.S. census counts. Prior to 9/11/01, participants reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with anxiety, depression, or insomnia. Two weeks following the terrorist attacks, they completed an acute stress questionnaire (SASRQ) which included questions about 9/11-related difficulty falling or staying asleep and nightmares. They later completed a posttraumatic stress symptom questionnaire at two time points: 2 months and 6 months post-9/11. This instrument, the IES-R, included questions about 9/11-related difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and dreams. A total of 782 adults (50.4% male; mean age = 49.6 years) responded.Two weeks following the terrorist attacks, 23% of the sample reported having 9/11-related difficulty falling or staying asleep; 9% reported 9/11-related nightmares. Two months following the attacks, 27% reported having at least some difficulty falling asleep related to 9/11, 33% reported having difficulty staying asleep, and 17% reported having 9/11-related dreams. When assessed again at 6 months post-9/11, levels of these three sleep issues dropped significantly to 14%, 15%, and 8%, respectively. Females reported higher levels of 9/11-related sleep difficulties than males both at 2 weeks and 2 months after the attacks. By 6 months post-9/11, this sex difference had all but disappeared. Older respondents were slightly less likely than younger ones to report nightmares 2 weeks post-9/11 and dreams 2 months post-9/11. Those with pre-9/11 diagnoses of anxiety, depression, and insomnia generally had higher rates of 9/11-related sleep difficulties at all time points assessed.When tested with a hierarchical regression model, difficulty falling or staying asleep at 2 weeks post-9/11 significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 6 months (but not 2 months) following the attacks. This was true even when taking into account the contribution of pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses and non-sleep-related acute stress symptoms. These findings raise the possibility that the experience of disturbed sleep soon after a trauma directly contributes to the eventual development and exacerbation of posttraumatic stress symptoms.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
sleep; September 11; posttraumatic stress
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Psychology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Bootzin, Richard R.
Committee Chair:
Bootzin, Richard R.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleSleep Disturbance Following September 11: Results of a Nationwide Longitudinal Studyen_US
dc.creatorBailey, Elaine T.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBailey, Elaine T.en_US
dc.date.issued2006en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, provided a unique, though unfortunate, opportunity to study Americans' sleep reactions to a traumatic event. Questionnaires were distributed electronically to a web-based panel whose demographic distribution closely matched current U.S. census counts. Prior to 9/11/01, participants reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with anxiety, depression, or insomnia. Two weeks following the terrorist attacks, they completed an acute stress questionnaire (SASRQ) which included questions about 9/11-related difficulty falling or staying asleep and nightmares. They later completed a posttraumatic stress symptom questionnaire at two time points: 2 months and 6 months post-9/11. This instrument, the IES-R, included questions about 9/11-related difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and dreams. A total of 782 adults (50.4% male; mean age = 49.6 years) responded.Two weeks following the terrorist attacks, 23% of the sample reported having 9/11-related difficulty falling or staying asleep; 9% reported 9/11-related nightmares. Two months following the attacks, 27% reported having at least some difficulty falling asleep related to 9/11, 33% reported having difficulty staying asleep, and 17% reported having 9/11-related dreams. When assessed again at 6 months post-9/11, levels of these three sleep issues dropped significantly to 14%, 15%, and 8%, respectively. Females reported higher levels of 9/11-related sleep difficulties than males both at 2 weeks and 2 months after the attacks. By 6 months post-9/11, this sex difference had all but disappeared. Older respondents were slightly less likely than younger ones to report nightmares 2 weeks post-9/11 and dreams 2 months post-9/11. Those with pre-9/11 diagnoses of anxiety, depression, and insomnia generally had higher rates of 9/11-related sleep difficulties at all time points assessed.When tested with a hierarchical regression model, difficulty falling or staying asleep at 2 weeks post-9/11 significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 6 months (but not 2 months) following the attacks. This was true even when taking into account the contribution of pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses and non-sleep-related acute stress symptoms. These findings raise the possibility that the experience of disturbed sleep soon after a trauma directly contributes to the eventual development and exacerbation of posttraumatic stress symptoms.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectsleepen_US
dc.subjectSeptember 11en_US
dc.subjectposttraumatic stressen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePsychologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorBootzin, Richard R.en_US
dc.contributor.chairBootzin, Richard R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberKaszniak, Alfred W.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberShoham, Vardaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberArkowitz, Harold S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHerring, Anne M.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest1560en_US
dc.identifier.oclc137355918en_US
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