The relation between ephemeral stream regime and earth fissuring in south-central Arizona

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/191716
Title:
The relation between ephemeral stream regime and earth fissuring in south-central Arizona
Author:
Johnson, Nicholas Matthews.
Issue Date:
1980
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Earth fissures in alluvial basins of south-central Arizona, formed in response to ground-water decline and land subsidence, act as water and sediment sinks for periods in excess of ten years. Investigation of the relation between ephemeral stream regime and earth fissuring revealed aspects of the subsurface dimensions of fissures as well as the potential hazards of fissuring. Fissure and gully erosion was measured and mapped. Up to several hundred cubic meters of eroded material per hundred meters of fissure has been absorbed by fissures. Measured rates of fissure-induced erosion were significant when compared to rates of arroyo erosion determined in previous works. Ephemeral stream discharge and sediment transport were gauged with simple and inexpensive methods. Summer thunderstorm runoff events lasting approximately 30 minutes were observed to have up to 0.5 cubic meter per second peak discharge and transport up to 4 cubic meters of sediment per single small channel. Measured and estimated volumes of sediment deposited in earth fissures indicated fissure depths exceed 100 meters, sediment spreads out laterally within fissures, and fissures are unlikely to be much less than 3 centimeters wide at depth. Beneficial ground-water recharge through earth fissures was not deemed to be significant. However, observations indicated that potential ground-water contamination through fissures may be the most serious hazard associated with fissuring.
Type:
Thesis-Reproduction (electronic); text
LCSH Subjects:
Hydrology.; Arroyos -- Arizona -- Pinal County.; Erosion -- Arizona -- Pinal County.; Sediment transport -- Arizona -- Pinal County.; Artificial groundwater recharge.
Degree Name:
M.S.
Degree Level:
masters
Degree Program:
Hydrology and Water Resources; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Committee Chair:
Davis, Stanley N.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleThe relation between ephemeral stream regime and earth fissuring in south-central Arizonaen_US
dc.creatorJohnson, Nicholas Matthews.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Nicholas Matthews.en_US
dc.date.issued1980en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractEarth fissures in alluvial basins of south-central Arizona, formed in response to ground-water decline and land subsidence, act as water and sediment sinks for periods in excess of ten years. Investigation of the relation between ephemeral stream regime and earth fissuring revealed aspects of the subsurface dimensions of fissures as well as the potential hazards of fissuring. Fissure and gully erosion was measured and mapped. Up to several hundred cubic meters of eroded material per hundred meters of fissure has been absorbed by fissures. Measured rates of fissure-induced erosion were significant when compared to rates of arroyo erosion determined in previous works. Ephemeral stream discharge and sediment transport were gauged with simple and inexpensive methods. Summer thunderstorm runoff events lasting approximately 30 minutes were observed to have up to 0.5 cubic meter per second peak discharge and transport up to 4 cubic meters of sediment per single small channel. Measured and estimated volumes of sediment deposited in earth fissures indicated fissure depths exceed 100 meters, sediment spreads out laterally within fissures, and fissures are unlikely to be much less than 3 centimeters wide at depth. Beneficial ground-water recharge through earth fissures was not deemed to be significant. However, observations indicated that potential ground-water contamination through fissures may be the most serious hazard associated with fissuring.en_US
dc.description.notehydrology collectionen_US
dc.typeThesis-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.subject.lcshHydrology.en_US
dc.subject.lcshArroyos -- Arizona -- Pinal County.en_US
dc.subject.lcshErosion -- Arizona -- Pinal County.en_US
dc.subject.lcshSediment transport -- Arizona -- Pinal County.en_US
dc.subject.lcshArtificial groundwater recharge.en_US
thesis.degree.nameM.S.en_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineHydrology and Water Resourcesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.chairDavis, Stanley N.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBull, William B.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberInce, Simonen_US
dc.identifier.oclc212908424en_US
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