Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/191202
Title:
Thermodynamic and isotopic systematics of chromium chemistry
Author:
Ball, James William,1945-
Issue Date:
1996
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
This investigation has produced four major results: (1) Thermodynamic properties of chromium metal, aqueous ions, hydrolysis species, oxides and hydroxides were compiled. Data were critically evaluated, some data were recalculated, and thermodynamic properties were selected. (2) A method was developed for separating chromium from its natural water matrix using sequential anion and cation exchange chromatography. (3) A method for determining the ⁵³Cr/⁵²Cr ratio using solid-source thermal ionization mass spectrometry with the silica gel-boric acid ionization- - enhancement technique was developed. (4) Ground water samples from six locations were analyzed for their ⁵³Cr/⁵²Cr ratio using the above methods. Results from carefully measured electromotive force (emf) values for the reduction of Cr³⁺ to Cr²⁺ were recalculated for compatibility with the infinite dilution standard state, and a revised ∆G°(f) for Cr²⁺(aq) was calculated. Equilibrium constants for chromium(III) hydrolysis were taken from Rai, et al. (1987) and for chromium(VI) hydrolysis from Palmer, et al. (1987). The ion exchange method is based on retention of chromium(VI) on strongly basic anion exchange resin at pf1 4 and its reductive elution with 2N HNO₃ . Chromium(III) is retained on strongly acidic cation exchange resin at pH 1.3 and eluted with 5N HNO₃. Possible interferents include metals that form both oxyanions and cations. High-purity reagents and containers made of rigorously cleanable noncontaminating materials are required. Samples for mass spectrometry are pretreated with aqua regia and concentrated nitric acid, then mixed with silica and boric acid and transferred to the tantalum filament of a stainless steel and glass sample holder. The ⁵³Cr/⁵²Cr ratio was measured to avoid isobaric interferences with iron. To be significantly different from each other, isotopic signatures must differ by at least 0.5 per mil. Samples from six locations were examined for their ⁵³Cr/⁵²Cr ratio. For the samples with natural origin, the spread in δ⁵³Cr values of-2.0 to +3.0 per mil suggests that samples of chromium derived from differing source materials or from different geographic locations have distinct isotopic signatures. Conclusions regarding source-related variations in the isotopic signature of contaminant chromium are problematic, because specific information about the respective source materials is lacking.
Type:
Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic); text
Keywords:
Hydrology.; Chromium.; Ion exchange chromatography.
Degree Name:
Ph. D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Hydrology and Water Resources; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Committee Chair:
Bassett, Randy

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleThermodynamic and isotopic systematics of chromium chemistryen_US
dc.creatorBall, James William,1945-en_US
dc.contributor.authorBall, James William,1945-en_US
dc.date.issued1996en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThis investigation has produced four major results: (1) Thermodynamic properties of chromium metal, aqueous ions, hydrolysis species, oxides and hydroxides were compiled. Data were critically evaluated, some data were recalculated, and thermodynamic properties were selected. (2) A method was developed for separating chromium from its natural water matrix using sequential anion and cation exchange chromatography. (3) A method for determining the ⁵³Cr/⁵²Cr ratio using solid-source thermal ionization mass spectrometry with the silica gel-boric acid ionization- - enhancement technique was developed. (4) Ground water samples from six locations were analyzed for their ⁵³Cr/⁵²Cr ratio using the above methods. Results from carefully measured electromotive force (emf) values for the reduction of Cr³⁺ to Cr²⁺ were recalculated for compatibility with the infinite dilution standard state, and a revised ∆G°(f) for Cr²⁺(aq) was calculated. Equilibrium constants for chromium(III) hydrolysis were taken from Rai, et al. (1987) and for chromium(VI) hydrolysis from Palmer, et al. (1987). The ion exchange method is based on retention of chromium(VI) on strongly basic anion exchange resin at pf1 4 and its reductive elution with 2N HNO₃ . Chromium(III) is retained on strongly acidic cation exchange resin at pH 1.3 and eluted with 5N HNO₃. Possible interferents include metals that form both oxyanions and cations. High-purity reagents and containers made of rigorously cleanable noncontaminating materials are required. Samples for mass spectrometry are pretreated with aqua regia and concentrated nitric acid, then mixed with silica and boric acid and transferred to the tantalum filament of a stainless steel and glass sample holder. The ⁵³Cr/⁵²Cr ratio was measured to avoid isobaric interferences with iron. To be significantly different from each other, isotopic signatures must differ by at least 0.5 per mil. Samples from six locations were examined for their ⁵³Cr/⁵²Cr ratio. For the samples with natural origin, the spread in δ⁵³Cr values of-2.0 to +3.0 per mil suggests that samples of chromium derived from differing source materials or from different geographic locations have distinct isotopic signatures. Conclusions regarding source-related variations in the isotopic signature of contaminant chromium are problematic, because specific information about the respective source materials is lacking.en_US
dc.description.notehydrology collectionen_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.subjectHydrology.en_US
dc.subjectChromium.en_US
dc.subjectIon exchange chromatography.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineHydrology and Water Resourcesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.chairBassett, Randyen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberConklin, Marthaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberNordstrom, K. Kirken_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFernando, Quintusen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBullen, Thomas D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWood, Warren W.en_US
dc.identifier.oclc222388195en_US
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