Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/191084
Title:
Chlorine in ground water : stable isotope distribution
Author:
Kaufmann, Ronald Steven.
Issue Date:
1984
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Eighty years of chlorine atomic weight measurements revealed no variation of the stable isotope ratio, 37C1/ 35C1 (with precision up to 1.0%.) in natural materials. This result is not surprising because chlorine occurs in relatively few compounds, has a strong affinity for the liquid phase, occurs mostly in the -1 oxidation state and organisms don't discriminate between chlorine isotopes. Chlorine isotopes have been found to fractionate in the laboratory during kinetic reactions, equilibrium between phases and diffusion. This dissertation examined chlorine isotope composition of chloride from sea water halite, hydrothermal water samples and ground-water samples where chloride was likely moving by diffusion. The measurement method was mass spectrometry of methyl chloride gas prepared by quantitative precipitation of AgC1 from solution, and reaction of the AgC1 with methyl iodide. The precision of the technique is 0.24%. Results from sea water indicate that isotope ratios in sea water do not vary beyond measured uncertainty, thus sea water became the designated standard called SMOC (Standard mean ocean chloride). Many of the samples measured in this study vary significantly, though most are within 1.0%, of SMOC. All halite and hydrothermal samples are heavier than SMOC. Halite results may indicate isotope effects durina precipitation or time dependent variations of sea water. Hydrothermal samples may indicate source differences and/or fractionation mechanisms. Milk River aquifer samples indicate that chloride in the same aquifer may vary due to dual filtration or differina sources. Samples from a Canadian glacial clay show a total chloride variation of 2.4%,, linearly distributed with depth. chloride in the clay is known to be diffusing against ground-water movement. The isotope distribution can be approximated with a counter-current column equation. Samples from Texas and Louisiana contain an isotope range of about 1.8%, linearly distributed with depths from 6,000 to 14,000 feet. The distribution can be approximated with a simple diffusion equation. As a tracing tool, chlorine isotope measurements showed that halite AO kilometers from the ocean in south Africa probably did not precipitate from sea water mist, and that oil field brines adiacent to the Weeks Island salt dome (Louisiana) probably did not receive substantial quantities dome chloride.
Type:
Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic); text
Keywords:
Hydrology.; Chlorine.; Groundwater -- Composition.
Degree Name:
Ph. D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Geosciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Committee Chair:
Long, Austin

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleChlorine in ground water : stable isotope distributionen_US
dc.creatorKaufmann, Ronald Steven.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKaufmann, Ronald Steven.en_US
dc.date.issued1984en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractEighty years of chlorine atomic weight measurements revealed no variation of the stable isotope ratio, 37C1/ 35C1 (with precision up to 1.0%.) in natural materials. This result is not surprising because chlorine occurs in relatively few compounds, has a strong affinity for the liquid phase, occurs mostly in the -1 oxidation state and organisms don't discriminate between chlorine isotopes. Chlorine isotopes have been found to fractionate in the laboratory during kinetic reactions, equilibrium between phases and diffusion. This dissertation examined chlorine isotope composition of chloride from sea water halite, hydrothermal water samples and ground-water samples where chloride was likely moving by diffusion. The measurement method was mass spectrometry of methyl chloride gas prepared by quantitative precipitation of AgC1 from solution, and reaction of the AgC1 with methyl iodide. The precision of the technique is 0.24%. Results from sea water indicate that isotope ratios in sea water do not vary beyond measured uncertainty, thus sea water became the designated standard called SMOC (Standard mean ocean chloride). Many of the samples measured in this study vary significantly, though most are within 1.0%, of SMOC. All halite and hydrothermal samples are heavier than SMOC. Halite results may indicate isotope effects durina precipitation or time dependent variations of sea water. Hydrothermal samples may indicate source differences and/or fractionation mechanisms. Milk River aquifer samples indicate that chloride in the same aquifer may vary due to dual filtration or differina sources. Samples from a Canadian glacial clay show a total chloride variation of 2.4%,, linearly distributed with depth. chloride in the clay is known to be diffusing against ground-water movement. The isotope distribution can be approximated with a counter-current column equation. Samples from Texas and Louisiana contain an isotope range of about 1.8%, linearly distributed with depths from 6,000 to 14,000 feet. The distribution can be approximated with a simple diffusion equation. As a tracing tool, chlorine isotope measurements showed that halite AO kilometers from the ocean in south Africa probably did not precipitate from sea water mist, and that oil field brines adiacent to the Weeks Island salt dome (Louisiana) probably did not receive substantial quantities dome chloride.en_US
dc.description.notehydrology collectionen_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.subjectHydrology.en_US
dc.subjectChlorine.en_US
dc.subjectGroundwater -- Composition.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGeosciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.chairLong, Austinen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDavis, Stanley N.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBentley, Harold W.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBaker, Victor R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSimpson, Eugene S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberEastoe, Chris J.en_US
dc.identifier.oclc213097157en_US
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