The development and water use of moisture-stressed and non-stressed sorghum (Sorghum Bicolon (L.) Moench)

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/191070
Title:
The development and water use of moisture-stressed and non-stressed sorghum (Sorghum Bicolon (L.) Moench)
Author:
O'Neill, Michael Kirkbride.
Issue Date:
1982
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
The development, yield and water use of six sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) hybrids and their respective male and female parents were evaluated under stressed and well irrigated conditions during 1980 and 1981 at Tucson, Arizona. Changes in soil moisture storage were measured by neutron modulation on a semiweekly schedule. Transpiration, diffusive resistance and leaf-ambient temperature differentials were monitored biweekly using a steady state porometer. Meteorological data was collected on a daily basis. The 1980 season had higher maximum temperatures and pan evaporation than the 1981 season. Differences in soil moisture extraction among sorghum entries were not apparent within water treatments. Mean cumulative evapotranspiration (ET) for the stressed treatment was 270 and 261 mm, for 1980 and 1981, respectively. Mean cumulative ET for irrigated treatment was about twice that at 520 and 648 mm during 1980 and 1981, respectively. There were no apparent differences in cumulative ET for entries in the stressed treatment while genotypic differences were manifested under well irrigated conditions. Temperature differential demonstrated a significant and negative correlation with diffusive resistance especially under stressed conditions (r = -.64 in 1981). Temperature differential was positively correlated with transpiration (r = .70 in 1980 stressed treatment). Plant height was significantly affected by water level both years while stem weight was affected by water level only in 1980. Soil moisture treatments did not affect leaf area either year and genotypic differences were demonstrated only in 1981. Hybrids produced greater grain yield than their male parents under both water treatments. This was due to greater seed number for hybrids. Seed number was also more stable for hybrids under both moisture levels. Hybrids four and seven had the greatest grain yield in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Harvest index was improved with increased water application due to increased seed number. Hybrid four in 1980 and hybrid seven in 1981 were extremely efficient in water use exhibiting ET ratios of 283 and 378, respectively under high water application. Reduced water application had little affect on the performance of these entries.
Type:
Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic); text
Keywords:
Hydrology.; Sorghum.; Plant-water relationships.; Plants -- Effect of stress on.; Plants -- Effect of soil moisture on.; Soil moisture -- Arizona.
Degree Name:
Ph. D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Plant Sciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Committee Chair:
Dobrenz, Albert K.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleThe development and water use of moisture-stressed and non-stressed sorghum (Sorghum Bicolon (L.) Moench)en_US
dc.creatorO'Neill, Michael Kirkbride.en_US
dc.contributor.authorO'Neill, Michael Kirkbride.en_US
dc.date.issued1982en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe development, yield and water use of six sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) hybrids and their respective male and female parents were evaluated under stressed and well irrigated conditions during 1980 and 1981 at Tucson, Arizona. Changes in soil moisture storage were measured by neutron modulation on a semiweekly schedule. Transpiration, diffusive resistance and leaf-ambient temperature differentials were monitored biweekly using a steady state porometer. Meteorological data was collected on a daily basis. The 1980 season had higher maximum temperatures and pan evaporation than the 1981 season. Differences in soil moisture extraction among sorghum entries were not apparent within water treatments. Mean cumulative evapotranspiration (ET) for the stressed treatment was 270 and 261 mm, for 1980 and 1981, respectively. Mean cumulative ET for irrigated treatment was about twice that at 520 and 648 mm during 1980 and 1981, respectively. There were no apparent differences in cumulative ET for entries in the stressed treatment while genotypic differences were manifested under well irrigated conditions. Temperature differential demonstrated a significant and negative correlation with diffusive resistance especially under stressed conditions (r = -.64 in 1981). Temperature differential was positively correlated with transpiration (r = .70 in 1980 stressed treatment). Plant height was significantly affected by water level both years while stem weight was affected by water level only in 1980. Soil moisture treatments did not affect leaf area either year and genotypic differences were demonstrated only in 1981. Hybrids produced greater grain yield than their male parents under both water treatments. This was due to greater seed number for hybrids. Seed number was also more stable for hybrids under both moisture levels. Hybrids four and seven had the greatest grain yield in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Harvest index was improved with increased water application due to increased seed number. Hybrid four in 1980 and hybrid seven in 1981 were extremely efficient in water use exhibiting ET ratios of 283 and 378, respectively under high water application. Reduced water application had little affect on the performance of these entries.en_US
dc.description.notehydrology collectionen_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.subjectHydrology.en_US
dc.subjectSorghum.en_US
dc.subjectPlant-water relationships.en_US
dc.subjectPlants -- Effect of stress on.en_US
dc.subjectPlants -- Effect of soil moisture on.en_US
dc.subjectSoil moisture -- Arizona.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePlant Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.chairDobrenz, Albert K.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMarcarian, Victoriaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberVoigt, Robert L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPepper, Ian L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStroehlein, Jack L.en_US
dc.identifier.oclc212927048en_US
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