Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/191005
Title:
Effect of urban street pattern on drainage.
Author:
Kao, Samuel Erh-chiang,1944-
Issue Date:
1973
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
In cities, storm runoff is usually collected in the streets and conveyed to underground storm drains through inlets located at street level. Construction and maintenance of storm drain systems is always expensive. In semiarid regions with a very low frequency of storm occurrence, most cities use streets as the drainage route even though their primary function is for the movement of traffic. As a result, the shape of a runoff hydrograph at the outlet of an urban watershed will vary with the pattern of street arrangement within the watershed. The objective of this study is to investigate tradeoffs between alternative street patterns with respect to urban drainage. The study area is confined to residential subdivisions where the subdivision boundary is assumed to be the watershed boundary. Three street patterns, namely, rectangular, curvilinear and dendritic, are considered in this study. The cost-effectiveness technique is employed to give an objective evaluation for these three alternative patterns. The effectiveness is measured by three kinds of evaluators. The first evaluator is the flow depth at certain points on the streets; the second evaluator is the total time during which the streets are occupied by a certain depth of water; the third evaluator is the total cost associated with the construction of a street pattern. A framework of a distributed system model has been constructed for simulating the runoff hydrographs and flow depths at certain points on the streets. A parcel of land near Willcox, Arizona, is selected to illustrate how the model could be used. Possible subdivisions of the land for each of the three different types of street patterns are shown, and the runoff hydrographs and flow depths from each of the patterns are examined. It is found that the peak flow rate resulting from the rectangular pattern is 13 percent higher than that from the curvilinear pattern and 29 percent higher than that from the dendritic pattern. The dendritic pattern has the smallest percentage of street intersections occupied by water during a storm. Time of occupation of high water stages at street intersections is much shorter in the dendritic pattern than that in the rectangular and curvilinear patterns. The development cost for the dendritic pattern is the lowest among these three patterns. Therefore, the dendritic pattern appears to be the best type of street arrangement in terms of urban drainage.
Type:
Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic); text
Keywords:
Hydrology.; Urban runoff -- Arizona -- Mathematical models.; Storm sewers -- Arizona.
Degree Name:
Ph. D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Hydrology and Water Resources; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Committee Chair:
Roefs, Theodore G.; Ince, Simon

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleEffect of urban street pattern on drainage.en_US
dc.creatorKao, Samuel Erh-chiang,1944-en_US
dc.contributor.authorKao, Samuel Erh-chiang,1944-en_US
dc.date.issued1973en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractIn cities, storm runoff is usually collected in the streets and conveyed to underground storm drains through inlets located at street level. Construction and maintenance of storm drain systems is always expensive. In semiarid regions with a very low frequency of storm occurrence, most cities use streets as the drainage route even though their primary function is for the movement of traffic. As a result, the shape of a runoff hydrograph at the outlet of an urban watershed will vary with the pattern of street arrangement within the watershed. The objective of this study is to investigate tradeoffs between alternative street patterns with respect to urban drainage. The study area is confined to residential subdivisions where the subdivision boundary is assumed to be the watershed boundary. Three street patterns, namely, rectangular, curvilinear and dendritic, are considered in this study. The cost-effectiveness technique is employed to give an objective evaluation for these three alternative patterns. The effectiveness is measured by three kinds of evaluators. The first evaluator is the flow depth at certain points on the streets; the second evaluator is the total time during which the streets are occupied by a certain depth of water; the third evaluator is the total cost associated with the construction of a street pattern. A framework of a distributed system model has been constructed for simulating the runoff hydrographs and flow depths at certain points on the streets. A parcel of land near Willcox, Arizona, is selected to illustrate how the model could be used. Possible subdivisions of the land for each of the three different types of street patterns are shown, and the runoff hydrographs and flow depths from each of the patterns are examined. It is found that the peak flow rate resulting from the rectangular pattern is 13 percent higher than that from the curvilinear pattern and 29 percent higher than that from the dendritic pattern. The dendritic pattern has the smallest percentage of street intersections occupied by water during a storm. Time of occupation of high water stages at street intersections is much shorter in the dendritic pattern than that in the rectangular and curvilinear patterns. The development cost for the dendritic pattern is the lowest among these three patterns. Therefore, the dendritic pattern appears to be the best type of street arrangement in terms of urban drainage.en_US
dc.description.notehydrology collectionen_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.subjectHydrology.en_US
dc.subjectUrban runoff -- Arizona -- Mathematical models.en_US
dc.subjectStorm sewers -- Arizona.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineHydrology and Water Resourcesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.chairRoefs, Theodore G.en_US
dc.contributor.chairInce, Simonen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDeCook, Kenneth J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFogel, Martin M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCarmody, Thomasen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDuckstein, Lucienen_US
dc.identifier.oclc213395217en_US
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