POPULATION CYTOGENETICS OF THE COMMON CHIMPANZEE PAN TROGLODYTES (CHROMOSOMES, EVOLUTION, PRIMATES).

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/187797
Title:
POPULATION CYTOGENETICS OF THE COMMON CHIMPANZEE PAN TROGLODYTES (CHROMOSOMES, EVOLUTION, PRIMATES).
Author:
MARKS, JONATHAN MITCHELL.
Issue Date:
1984
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
First, the literature on hominoid cytogenetics is reviewed and evaluated. It is suggested that there are significant deficiencies in the ways in which chromosomal data have been used with regard to primate evolution. The most robust chromosomal data support an orthodox phylogeny of the Hominoidea. Heterodox phylogenies which have been suggested on the basis of chromosomal data are not well supported. The present investigation considered the problem of intra-specific variation in karyotypes of the common chimpanzee. Blood cultures were cultivated on 25 chimpanzees, constituting the largest sample of chimpanzees in a single cytogenetic study. These were studied by G-banding, C-banding and nucleolar organizer (Ag-NOR) staining. No inversions, translocations, fissions or fusions were detected in this sample. However, several variations of the constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolar organizers were noted. One individual had a chromosome 22 which lacked the heterochromatic short arm and satellite entirely. The most common variants were those in which the amount of telomeric heterochromatin differed significantly between the two homologous chromosomes. One such variant for chromosome 19 was found in 8 individuals. Two of the common chimpanzees possessed a chromosome 23 with a large heterochromatic short arm, although this feature has been reported only for the pygmy chimpanzee. To compare the observable range of variation in the common chimpanzee with its sister group, fibroblast cultures were obtained on three pygmy chimpanzees. Some of the cytotaxonomic distinctions between the two chimpanzee species are called into question. Three main conclusions are drawn from this work. First, the most common kinds of variations are nucleolar organizer and C-band heteromorphisms, as with the chimpanzee's close relative Homo sapiens. Second, inversions and translocations, which seem to be very common among gibbons but not among macaques/baboons, are not common in chimpanzees. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that such structural chromosomal diversity is a property of the social structure of the species rather than a property of the clade to which the species belongs. Third, there is some overlap between Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes for characters which have been thought to be cytotaxonomically distinctive of each species.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Primates -- Evolution.; Cytogenetics.; Physical anthropology.; Chimpanzees.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Anthropology; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Committee Chair:
Zegura, Stephen L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titlePOPULATION CYTOGENETICS OF THE COMMON CHIMPANZEE PAN TROGLODYTES (CHROMOSOMES, EVOLUTION, PRIMATES).en_US
dc.creatorMARKS, JONATHAN MITCHELL.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMARKS, JONATHAN MITCHELL.en_US
dc.date.issued1984en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractFirst, the literature on hominoid cytogenetics is reviewed and evaluated. It is suggested that there are significant deficiencies in the ways in which chromosomal data have been used with regard to primate evolution. The most robust chromosomal data support an orthodox phylogeny of the Hominoidea. Heterodox phylogenies which have been suggested on the basis of chromosomal data are not well supported. The present investigation considered the problem of intra-specific variation in karyotypes of the common chimpanzee. Blood cultures were cultivated on 25 chimpanzees, constituting the largest sample of chimpanzees in a single cytogenetic study. These were studied by G-banding, C-banding and nucleolar organizer (Ag-NOR) staining. No inversions, translocations, fissions or fusions were detected in this sample. However, several variations of the constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolar organizers were noted. One individual had a chromosome 22 which lacked the heterochromatic short arm and satellite entirely. The most common variants were those in which the amount of telomeric heterochromatin differed significantly between the two homologous chromosomes. One such variant for chromosome 19 was found in 8 individuals. Two of the common chimpanzees possessed a chromosome 23 with a large heterochromatic short arm, although this feature has been reported only for the pygmy chimpanzee. To compare the observable range of variation in the common chimpanzee with its sister group, fibroblast cultures were obtained on three pygmy chimpanzees. Some of the cytotaxonomic distinctions between the two chimpanzee species are called into question. Three main conclusions are drawn from this work. First, the most common kinds of variations are nucleolar organizer and C-band heteromorphisms, as with the chimpanzee's close relative Homo sapiens. Second, inversions and translocations, which seem to be very common among gibbons but not among macaques/baboons, are not common in chimpanzees. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that such structural chromosomal diversity is a property of the social structure of the species rather than a property of the clade to which the species belongs. Third, there is some overlap between Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes for characters which have been thought to be cytotaxonomically distinctive of each species.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectPrimates -- Evolution.en_US
dc.subjectCytogenetics.en_US
dc.subjectPhysical anthropology.en_US
dc.subjectChimpanzees.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineAnthropologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.chairZegura, Stephen L.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest8500470en_US
dc.identifier.oclc693269249en_US
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