EFFECT OF AMMONIATION TREATMENT OF AFLATOXIN B1 ON MUTAGENICITY AND LEVELS OF AFLATOXIN M1 IN MILK.

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/187644
Title:
EFFECT OF AMMONIATION TREATMENT OF AFLATOXIN B1 ON MUTAGENICITY AND LEVELS OF AFLATOXIN M1 IN MILK.
Author:
EWAIDAH, ESAM HASSAN.
Issue Date:
1984
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Six lactating Holstein cows received ammonia-treated or untreated aflatoxin-contaminated whole cottonseed (AFWC) or pure AFB₁ with their regular ration. Treatments were: AFWC (5,010 ppb AFB₁), 4 kg/day; the same AFWC treated with 1.5% anhydrous ammonia and 10% water; pure AFB₁ (2.2 mg twice daily) given in capsules; same amount AFB₁ treated with 50% NH₄OH for 26 days at 29°C; same amount ammoniated AFB₁ acidified to final pH of 5.0; same treatment as first except concentration of AFB₁ was 5,511 ppb. Levels of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in milk were monitored before, during, and after each treatment, and conversion and feed-through ratios were calculated. Feed consumption and milk production were also measured. Mutagenicity of acetone extracts of spray-dried milk was determined using Salmonella/microsomal assay. Ammoniation of AFWC did not reduce concentration of AFB₁ to below FDA action level; however, when the seed was fed, the concentration of AFM₁ in milk was less than FDA action level (0.5 μg/L). Ammoniation of AFB₁ was very effective in reducing levels of AFM₁ in milk of treated cows to less than the FDA action level. The average AFB₁/AFM₁ conversion ratios for the steady-state period of AFM₁ excretion in milk while giving AFWC and AFB₁ was 1.06% and 1.18%, respectively. Ammoniation of AFWC reduced the average AFB₁/AFM₁ ratio to 0.20% during the constant-state period of AFM(,1) excretion in milk. The ration containing AFWC (5,010 or 5,511 ppb AFB₁) caused a highly significant decrease in total milk production and feed consumption; ammoniated AFB₁ decreased total milk production significantly. Complete disappearance of AFM₁ from milk after discontinuing Treatments 1-6 was 120, 48, 95, 72, 96, and 120 h, respectively. Under these laboratory conditions, significance of the results of the Ames test was questionable.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Aflatoxins.; Milk contamination -- Prevention.; Mycotoxins.; Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Nutrition and Food Sciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Price, Ralph L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleEFFECT OF AMMONIATION TREATMENT OF AFLATOXIN B1 ON MUTAGENICITY AND LEVELS OF AFLATOXIN M1 IN MILK.en_US
dc.creatorEWAIDAH, ESAM HASSAN.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEWAIDAH, ESAM HASSAN.en_US
dc.date.issued1984en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractSix lactating Holstein cows received ammonia-treated or untreated aflatoxin-contaminated whole cottonseed (AFWC) or pure AFB₁ with their regular ration. Treatments were: AFWC (5,010 ppb AFB₁), 4 kg/day; the same AFWC treated with 1.5% anhydrous ammonia and 10% water; pure AFB₁ (2.2 mg twice daily) given in capsules; same amount AFB₁ treated with 50% NH₄OH for 26 days at 29°C; same amount ammoniated AFB₁ acidified to final pH of 5.0; same treatment as first except concentration of AFB₁ was 5,511 ppb. Levels of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in milk were monitored before, during, and after each treatment, and conversion and feed-through ratios were calculated. Feed consumption and milk production were also measured. Mutagenicity of acetone extracts of spray-dried milk was determined using Salmonella/microsomal assay. Ammoniation of AFWC did not reduce concentration of AFB₁ to below FDA action level; however, when the seed was fed, the concentration of AFM₁ in milk was less than FDA action level (0.5 μg/L). Ammoniation of AFB₁ was very effective in reducing levels of AFM₁ in milk of treated cows to less than the FDA action level. The average AFB₁/AFM₁ conversion ratios for the steady-state period of AFM₁ excretion in milk while giving AFWC and AFB₁ was 1.06% and 1.18%, respectively. Ammoniation of AFWC reduced the average AFB₁/AFM₁ ratio to 0.20% during the constant-state period of AFM(,1) excretion in milk. The ration containing AFWC (5,010 or 5,511 ppb AFB₁) caused a highly significant decrease in total milk production and feed consumption; ammoniated AFB₁ decreased total milk production significantly. Complete disappearance of AFM₁ from milk after discontinuing Treatments 1-6 was 120, 48, 95, 72, 96, and 120 h, respectively. Under these laboratory conditions, significance of the results of the Ames test was questionable.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectAflatoxins.en_US
dc.subjectMilk contamination -- Prevention.en_US
dc.subjectMycotoxins.en_US
dc.subjectDairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineNutrition and Food Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorPrice, Ralph L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBerry, James W.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWeber, Charles W.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGerba, Charles P.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMarchello, John A.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest8412662en_US
dc.identifier.oclc690917529en_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.