THE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESSED AND NON-STRESSED SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH).

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/186348
Title:
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESSED AND NON-STRESSED SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH).
Author:
HOFMANN, WALLACE CRAIG.
Issue Date:
1982
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Physiological responses of six sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) hybrids and their respective parental lines were evaluated under high and low soil moisture conditions at Tucson, Arizona in 1980 and 1981. Apparent photosynthesis, transpiration, diffusive resistance, and temperature differential (ambient temperature minus leaf temperature) were measured under field conditions at weekly intervals. To measure apparent photosynthesis, a small plexiglas chamber was sealed over a section of leaf blade and gas was sampled with two syringes pulled at a 30 or 60 second interval. The gas samples were injected from the syringes into an infrared gas analyzer to measure CO(,2) concentrations. Transpiration, diffusive resistance, and temperature differential were measured with a steady state porometer. Regression analysis was used to compare the physiological performance of the germplasm sources over a wide range of environmental conditions. The physiological characteristics of the highest yielding sorghum hybrid in 1980 were the most stable across all environments. This hybrid was superior to both its male and female parent for all four physiological characteristics. In 1980, this hybrid was superior to the other hybrids in temperature differential and transpiration. The superior yielding hybrid had the highest mean apparent photosynthesis and the lowest mean diffusive resistance. All hybrids had higher yields than their respective male parents under both irrigation treatments. Thirty-five days after planting, the superior yielding hybrid had the greatest leaf, stem, and root dry weights. This hybrid also had the highest relative leaf area expansion rate. Heterosis for stomatal density was not observed either year. Regression analysis proved to be an effective tool for analyzing the sorghum germplasm over a diverse range of environmental conditions. By comparing the response of an individual germplasm against the mean response of the population under numerous environmental conditions, the slope, mean, and coefficient of correlation may be used to evaluate genotype-environment interactions.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Sorghum -- Physiology.; Hybrid sorghum -- Physiology.; Plants -- Effect of soil moisture on.; Plants -- Effect of stress on.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Plant Sciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Shannon, Robert R.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleTHE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESSED AND NON-STRESSED SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH).en_US
dc.creatorHOFMANN, WALLACE CRAIG.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHOFMANN, WALLACE CRAIG.en_US
dc.date.issued1982en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractPhysiological responses of six sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) hybrids and their respective parental lines were evaluated under high and low soil moisture conditions at Tucson, Arizona in 1980 and 1981. Apparent photosynthesis, transpiration, diffusive resistance, and temperature differential (ambient temperature minus leaf temperature) were measured under field conditions at weekly intervals. To measure apparent photosynthesis, a small plexiglas chamber was sealed over a section of leaf blade and gas was sampled with two syringes pulled at a 30 or 60 second interval. The gas samples were injected from the syringes into an infrared gas analyzer to measure CO(,2) concentrations. Transpiration, diffusive resistance, and temperature differential were measured with a steady state porometer. Regression analysis was used to compare the physiological performance of the germplasm sources over a wide range of environmental conditions. The physiological characteristics of the highest yielding sorghum hybrid in 1980 were the most stable across all environments. This hybrid was superior to both its male and female parent for all four physiological characteristics. In 1980, this hybrid was superior to the other hybrids in temperature differential and transpiration. The superior yielding hybrid had the highest mean apparent photosynthesis and the lowest mean diffusive resistance. All hybrids had higher yields than their respective male parents under both irrigation treatments. Thirty-five days after planting, the superior yielding hybrid had the greatest leaf, stem, and root dry weights. This hybrid also had the highest relative leaf area expansion rate. Heterosis for stomatal density was not observed either year. Regression analysis proved to be an effective tool for analyzing the sorghum germplasm over a diverse range of environmental conditions. By comparing the response of an individual germplasm against the mean response of the population under numerous environmental conditions, the slope, mean, and coefficient of correlation may be used to evaluate genotype-environment interactions.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectSorghum -- Physiology.en_US
dc.subjectHybrid sorghum -- Physiology.en_US
dc.subjectPlants -- Effect of soil moisture on.en_US
dc.subjectPlants -- Effect of stress on.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePlant Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorShannon, Robert R.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest8217420en_US
dc.identifier.oclc681959899en_US
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