Evaluation of selected antibiotics for potential use in penaeid shrimp aquaculture.

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/186152
Title:
Evaluation of selected antibiotics for potential use in penaeid shrimp aquaculture.
Author:
Park, Eric Douglas.
Issue Date:
1993
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Select antibacterials were evaluated for their potential as shrimp aquaculture drugs. Difloxacin and sarafloxacin were evaluated for palatability, toxocity, and residues with respect to shrimp, after 15 days of feeding medicated diets. The pharmacokinetics and bioavailabilities of sulphadimethoxine (SDM) and ormetoprim (OMP) were also established for shrimp. Reductions (p < 0.05) in difloxacin feed palatability were noted as a function of dose. Total survival and mean survival time (p < 0.05) decreased as a function of dose. Signs of animal stress, i.e., lethargic behavior, was also noted in the highest dose group. Shrimp tissue levels of difloxacin were inconclusive and not readily determined with the current analytical methods for the drug in shrimp. However, indications were that elimination may be rapid, i.e., tissue t1/2 of 11.4 h with peak tissue levels following a standard dose response. Feed palatability was reduced (p < 0.05) as a function of sarafloxacin dose. Lower weight gains in the higher dose groups were also noted. Neither the total survival nor the mean survival time (p < 0.05) were affected by sarafloxacin dose. Feed Conversion Ratio's increased with dose, indicating possible subchronic toxicity. Sarafloxacin elimination was rapid, with a tissue t1/2 of 13.4 h and tissue levels decreased to below detectable limits by day 14 of withdrawal in all treatments. Peak tissue levels followed a standard dose response. The hemolymph concentrations versus time data for both SDM and OMP were fitted well by two compartment models. The SDM:OMP parameter estimates of CLs, Vss, and terminal phase t1/2 were 194:2045 ml/kg*h, 1735:25,442 ml/kg, and 6.9:11.5 h, respectively. Plasma protein binding of SDM and OMP was 5.2% and 12.1%, respectively. The bioavailabilities of SDM:OMP were 30:38%. Peak hemolymph concentration (Cmax) and time (Tmax) of SDM post of single oral dose (210 mg/kg) was 14 ug/ml at 4 h, while OMP (42 mg/kg) Cmax and Tmax was 0.45 ug/ml at 0.67 h. The amount of the available oral dose 2 h post administration of SDM:OMP in the hemolymph, muscle, and hepatopancreas were 6.0:0.5%, 9.3:2.8%, and 2.9:20.2%, respectively. Hemolymph and muscle tissue levels were below detectable limits post 48h for SDM and 24 h for OMP.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Dissertations, Academic.; Animal nutrition.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Nutritional Sciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Committee Chair:
Lightner, Donald V.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleEvaluation of selected antibiotics for potential use in penaeid shrimp aquaculture.en_US
dc.creatorPark, Eric Douglas.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPark, Eric Douglas.en_US
dc.date.issued1993en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractSelect antibacterials were evaluated for their potential as shrimp aquaculture drugs. Difloxacin and sarafloxacin were evaluated for palatability, toxocity, and residues with respect to shrimp, after 15 days of feeding medicated diets. The pharmacokinetics and bioavailabilities of sulphadimethoxine (SDM) and ormetoprim (OMP) were also established for shrimp. Reductions (p < 0.05) in difloxacin feed palatability were noted as a function of dose. Total survival and mean survival time (p < 0.05) decreased as a function of dose. Signs of animal stress, i.e., lethargic behavior, was also noted in the highest dose group. Shrimp tissue levels of difloxacin were inconclusive and not readily determined with the current analytical methods for the drug in shrimp. However, indications were that elimination may be rapid, i.e., tissue t1/2 of 11.4 h with peak tissue levels following a standard dose response. Feed palatability was reduced (p < 0.05) as a function of sarafloxacin dose. Lower weight gains in the higher dose groups were also noted. Neither the total survival nor the mean survival time (p < 0.05) were affected by sarafloxacin dose. Feed Conversion Ratio's increased with dose, indicating possible subchronic toxicity. Sarafloxacin elimination was rapid, with a tissue t1/2 of 13.4 h and tissue levels decreased to below detectable limits by day 14 of withdrawal in all treatments. Peak tissue levels followed a standard dose response. The hemolymph concentrations versus time data for both SDM and OMP were fitted well by two compartment models. The SDM:OMP parameter estimates of CLs, Vss, and terminal phase t1/2 were 194:2045 ml/kg*h, 1735:25,442 ml/kg, and 6.9:11.5 h, respectively. Plasma protein binding of SDM and OMP was 5.2% and 12.1%, respectively. The bioavailabilities of SDM:OMP were 30:38%. Peak hemolymph concentration (Cmax) and time (Tmax) of SDM post of single oral dose (210 mg/kg) was 14 ug/ml at 4 h, while OMP (42 mg/kg) Cmax and Tmax was 0.45 ug/ml at 0.67 h. The amount of the available oral dose 2 h post administration of SDM:OMP in the hemolymph, muscle, and hepatopancreas were 6.0:0.5%, 9.3:2.8%, and 2.9:20.2%, respectively. Hemolymph and muscle tissue levels were below detectable limits post 48h for SDM and 24 h for OMP.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectDissertations, Academic.en_US
dc.subjectAnimal nutrition.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineNutritional Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.chairLightner, Donald V.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberReid, Bobby L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPrice, Ralph L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSonger, J. Glennen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLozano-Alarcon, Fernandoen_US
dc.identifier.proquest9322652en_US
dc.identifier.oclc715421395en_US
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