Evolution of mid-plate hotspot swells, mantle plumes, and Hawaiian basalts.

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/184924
Title:
Evolution of mid-plate hotspot swells, mantle plumes, and Hawaiian basalts.
Author:
Liu, Mian.
Issue Date:
1989
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Studies of the evolution of hotspot swells, mantle plumes, and Hawaiian basalts are presented in three parts in this dissertation. In part 1, the evolution of mid-plate hotspot swells are simulated numerically as an oceanic plate rides over a hot, upwelling mantle plume. The transient heat transfer equations, with time- and space-dependent boundary conditions, are solved in cylindrical coordinates. Geophysical data are used to constrain the models. Formation of the Hawaiian swell requires a mechanism of convective thinning of the lithosphere. The models constrain the Hawaiian heat source to have a maximum anomalous temperature of 250-300°C, and a perturbing heat flux 5-6 times the background value. On the other hand, the Bermuda swell is likely produced by heat conduction due to weakness of the heat source. In part 2, an analytic model of axisymmetric mantle plumes is presented. Plume parameters beneath the lithosphere, which are constrained from the swell models, are used to infer the plume source regions. The Hawaiian plume likely originates near the core-mantle boundary, but other hotspots may have shallower sources. Chemical plumes are much narrower than thermal plumes because of low chemical diffusivity in the mantle. For mantle plumes driven by combined thermal-chemical diffusion, the chemical signature of the source regions may only be observed near plume centers. Finally, melt generation and extraction along the Hawaiian volcanic chain are discussed in part 3. As a part of the plate moves over the heat source, melting largely takes place in the region where the lithospheric material is engulfed and swept away by the flow of the heat source. At least three mantle components must be involved in the melt generation: the plume material, the asthenosphere, and the engulfed lithospheric material. Significant amount of melts may also come from direct melting of the upwelling plume at depths below the initial plate-plume boundary. Melt extracts continuously from an active partial melting zone of 10-20 km thick, which moves outward as heating and compaction proceed. The models explain quantitatively the general characteristics of Hawaiian volcanism as the result of plume-plate interaction.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Volcanism -- Hawaii; Plate tectonics; Volcanoes -- Hawaii; Basalt -- Hawaii
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Geosciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Chase, Clement G.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleEvolution of mid-plate hotspot swells, mantle plumes, and Hawaiian basalts.en_US
dc.creatorLiu, Mian.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Mian.en_US
dc.date.issued1989en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractStudies of the evolution of hotspot swells, mantle plumes, and Hawaiian basalts are presented in three parts in this dissertation. In part 1, the evolution of mid-plate hotspot swells are simulated numerically as an oceanic plate rides over a hot, upwelling mantle plume. The transient heat transfer equations, with time- and space-dependent boundary conditions, are solved in cylindrical coordinates. Geophysical data are used to constrain the models. Formation of the Hawaiian swell requires a mechanism of convective thinning of the lithosphere. The models constrain the Hawaiian heat source to have a maximum anomalous temperature of 250-300°C, and a perturbing heat flux 5-6 times the background value. On the other hand, the Bermuda swell is likely produced by heat conduction due to weakness of the heat source. In part 2, an analytic model of axisymmetric mantle plumes is presented. Plume parameters beneath the lithosphere, which are constrained from the swell models, are used to infer the plume source regions. The Hawaiian plume likely originates near the core-mantle boundary, but other hotspots may have shallower sources. Chemical plumes are much narrower than thermal plumes because of low chemical diffusivity in the mantle. For mantle plumes driven by combined thermal-chemical diffusion, the chemical signature of the source regions may only be observed near plume centers. Finally, melt generation and extraction along the Hawaiian volcanic chain are discussed in part 3. As a part of the plate moves over the heat source, melting largely takes place in the region where the lithospheric material is engulfed and swept away by the flow of the heat source. At least three mantle components must be involved in the melt generation: the plume material, the asthenosphere, and the engulfed lithospheric material. Significant amount of melts may also come from direct melting of the upwelling plume at depths below the initial plate-plume boundary. Melt extracts continuously from an active partial melting zone of 10-20 km thick, which moves outward as heating and compaction proceed. The models explain quantitatively the general characteristics of Hawaiian volcanism as the result of plume-plate interaction.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectVolcanism -- Hawaiien_US
dc.subjectPlate tectonicsen_US
dc.subjectVolcanoes -- Hawaiien_US
dc.subjectBasalt -- Hawaiien_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGeosciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorChase, Clement G.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberRichardson, Randall M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWallace, Terry C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPatchett, P. Jonathanen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGehrels, George E.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest9013181en_US
dc.identifier.oclc703443217en_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.