Seasonal gas exchange rates and growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke); across a gradient of drought.

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/184684
Title:
Seasonal gas exchange rates and growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke); across a gradient of drought.
Author:
Tewolde, Haile
Issue Date:
1989
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Seasonal patterns of stomatal activity, plant-temperature-based drought stress indices, growth and grain yield of two pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) parental lines and their F₁ hybrid were studied under a sprinkler irrigation gradient system in 1985 and 1986 in Tucson, Arizona. Physiological and morphological measurements of stressed and nonstressed plants were made periodically starting at the panicle initiation stage. Well-defined trends in stomatal conductance (Cg), transpiration (Tr), and photosynthetic (Pn) rates of nonstressed plants were observed over the seasons. Tr increased from 5ug H₂O cm⁻²s⁻¹ at early panicle development stage to a peak of up to 30 ug cm⁻²s⁻¹ at flowering and declined to 10 ug cm⁻²s⁻¹ at maturity. Pn of well-irrigated plants was highest (26 uMoles CO₂ m⁻²s⁻¹) at early flag leaf appearance stage and declined slowly to 14 uMoles m⁻²s⁻¹ at maturity. In extremely stressed plants, Cg, Tr and Pn were highest early in the seasons, lowest in the middle of the seasons, and slightly increased towards the end of the seasons. The seasonal trends in stomatal response depended on the stage of plant growth and vapor pressure deficit of the air. Transpiration efficiency was highest at partial stomatal closure. Morphologically, the F₁ hybrid was more like its male than its female parent. The female parent produced less dry matter, had thinner leaves and greater ratio of leaf to stem dry matter, and yielded less grain than the other genotypes. The results indicated that leaf:stem ratio can be a useful selection criterion of drought avoiding genotypes. Plants that develop stems and heads rapidly (low leaf:stem ratio) are more desirable under stress than plants that tend to become leafy. Decreases in Tr, Pn, dry matter and grain yield due to stress could be assessed with canopy or leaf temperature, canopy minus air or leaf minus air temperature, and crop (CWSI) or leaf (LWSI) water stress indices. CWSI and LWSI were more desirable in assessing stress than the other indices. CWSI is effective in assessing the magnitude of stress in a crop stand, while LWSI may be useful in situations where use of the infrared thermometer is difficult.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Millets -- Growth.; Millets -- Water requirements.; Plants -- Transpiration.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Plant Sciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Voigt, Robert L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleSeasonal gas exchange rates and growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke); across a gradient of drought.en_US
dc.creatorTewolde, Haileen_US
dc.contributor.authorTewolde, Haileen_US
dc.date.issued1989en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractSeasonal patterns of stomatal activity, plant-temperature-based drought stress indices, growth and grain yield of two pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) parental lines and their F₁ hybrid were studied under a sprinkler irrigation gradient system in 1985 and 1986 in Tucson, Arizona. Physiological and morphological measurements of stressed and nonstressed plants were made periodically starting at the panicle initiation stage. Well-defined trends in stomatal conductance (Cg), transpiration (Tr), and photosynthetic (Pn) rates of nonstressed plants were observed over the seasons. Tr increased from 5ug H₂O cm⁻²s⁻¹ at early panicle development stage to a peak of up to 30 ug cm⁻²s⁻¹ at flowering and declined to 10 ug cm⁻²s⁻¹ at maturity. Pn of well-irrigated plants was highest (26 uMoles CO₂ m⁻²s⁻¹) at early flag leaf appearance stage and declined slowly to 14 uMoles m⁻²s⁻¹ at maturity. In extremely stressed plants, Cg, Tr and Pn were highest early in the seasons, lowest in the middle of the seasons, and slightly increased towards the end of the seasons. The seasonal trends in stomatal response depended on the stage of plant growth and vapor pressure deficit of the air. Transpiration efficiency was highest at partial stomatal closure. Morphologically, the F₁ hybrid was more like its male than its female parent. The female parent produced less dry matter, had thinner leaves and greater ratio of leaf to stem dry matter, and yielded less grain than the other genotypes. The results indicated that leaf:stem ratio can be a useful selection criterion of drought avoiding genotypes. Plants that develop stems and heads rapidly (low leaf:stem ratio) are more desirable under stress than plants that tend to become leafy. Decreases in Tr, Pn, dry matter and grain yield due to stress could be assessed with canopy or leaf temperature, canopy minus air or leaf minus air temperature, and crop (CWSI) or leaf (LWSI) water stress indices. CWSI and LWSI were more desirable in assessing stress than the other indices. CWSI is effective in assessing the magnitude of stress in a crop stand, while LWSI may be useful in situations where use of the infrared thermometer is difficult.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectMillets -- Growth.en_US
dc.subjectMillets -- Water requirements.en_US
dc.subjectPlants -- Transpiration.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePlant Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorVoigt, Robert L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDobrenz, Albert K.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMatsuda, Kaoruen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBriggs, Robert E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMatthias, Allan D.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest8915990en_US
dc.identifier.oclc702371549en_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.