Indirect calorimetry evaluations of energy utilization by laying hens: Nutrient and temperature effects.

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/184626
Title:
Indirect calorimetry evaluations of energy utilization by laying hens: Nutrient and temperature effects.
Author:
Rising, Russell Marshall.
Issue Date:
1988
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
A four-chamber indirect calorimeter was constructed to evaluate energy utilization by laying hens as affected by dietary energy, protein and amino acid levels and by housing temperature. Heat production was measured by indirect calorimetry and metabolizable energy was determined for each diet. Net energetic efficiency was calculated as the slope of the regression of energy balance (metabolizable energy intake - heat production) on metabolizable energy intake. Hens fed diets formulated without protein specifications to provide amino acid levels equivalent to those provided by 14.5 or 16% protein, had higher (P < .05) net energetic efficiencies than hens fed diets formulated with specified protein levels. Addition of 3% animal fat to the higher (16% protein) amino acid diets produced the greatest increases (P < .05) in net efficiency, but decreased (P < .05) efficiency in the lower (14.5% protein) amino acid diet formulated without a protein specification. Metabolizable energy available for production was improved (P < .05) with animal fat additions to all but the diet formulated to the higher (16% protein) amino acid levels. Animal fat, cottonseed oil, corn oil, cod liver oil and safflower oil were used to determine effects of fat source on energy utilization by laying hens at 21.1 C. Higher net efficiencies were obtained for the cottonseed and safflower oil diets (99.1 and 99.8%, respectively) than for the basal diet (90.6%) or the other fat sources (cod liver oil = 86.0%, corn oil = 87.3%, animal fat = 91.1%). Full vs. meal (two 1-hr periods daily) feeding and total sulfur amino acid deficiency effects on energy utilization were evaluated. Meal feeding reduced (P < .05) metabolizable energy available for production while increasing (P < .05) maintenance metabolizable energy requirements. Feeding regime did not reverse the decline (P < .05) in net efficiency (89.2-89.7 to 81.7-82.6%) observed with total sulfur amino acid deficiency. Hens were fed either 7% animal fat or 7% corn oil and maintained at 10, 21.1 and 32.2 C to study effects of fat source and temperature on energy utilization. From 10 to 32.2 C, net energetic efficiency increased from 87.6 to 92.6% with animal fat. Corn oil showed the highest net efficiency (93.9%) at 10 C, while animal fat was highest (92.6%) at 32.2 C. Hens fed animal fat required the most (P < .05) maintenance metabolizable energy and had the highest (P < .05) fasting heat productions at each temperature.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Chickens -- Feed utilization efficiency.; Chickens -- Metabolism.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Nutritional Sciences; Graduate College
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Reid, Bobby L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleIndirect calorimetry evaluations of energy utilization by laying hens: Nutrient and temperature effects.en_US
dc.creatorRising, Russell Marshall.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRising, Russell Marshall.en_US
dc.date.issued1988en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractA four-chamber indirect calorimeter was constructed to evaluate energy utilization by laying hens as affected by dietary energy, protein and amino acid levels and by housing temperature. Heat production was measured by indirect calorimetry and metabolizable energy was determined for each diet. Net energetic efficiency was calculated as the slope of the regression of energy balance (metabolizable energy intake - heat production) on metabolizable energy intake. Hens fed diets formulated without protein specifications to provide amino acid levels equivalent to those provided by 14.5 or 16% protein, had higher (P < .05) net energetic efficiencies than hens fed diets formulated with specified protein levels. Addition of 3% animal fat to the higher (16% protein) amino acid diets produced the greatest increases (P < .05) in net efficiency, but decreased (P < .05) efficiency in the lower (14.5% protein) amino acid diet formulated without a protein specification. Metabolizable energy available for production was improved (P < .05) with animal fat additions to all but the diet formulated to the higher (16% protein) amino acid levels. Animal fat, cottonseed oil, corn oil, cod liver oil and safflower oil were used to determine effects of fat source on energy utilization by laying hens at 21.1 C. Higher net efficiencies were obtained for the cottonseed and safflower oil diets (99.1 and 99.8%, respectively) than for the basal diet (90.6%) or the other fat sources (cod liver oil = 86.0%, corn oil = 87.3%, animal fat = 91.1%). Full vs. meal (two 1-hr periods daily) feeding and total sulfur amino acid deficiency effects on energy utilization were evaluated. Meal feeding reduced (P < .05) metabolizable energy available for production while increasing (P < .05) maintenance metabolizable energy requirements. Feeding regime did not reverse the decline (P < .05) in net efficiency (89.2-89.7 to 81.7-82.6%) observed with total sulfur amino acid deficiency. Hens were fed either 7% animal fat or 7% corn oil and maintained at 10, 21.1 and 32.2 C to study effects of fat source and temperature on energy utilization. From 10 to 32.2 C, net energetic efficiency increased from 87.6 to 92.6% with animal fat. Corn oil showed the highest net efficiency (93.9%) at 10 C, while animal fat was highest (92.6%) at 32.2 C. Hens fed animal fat required the most (P < .05) maintenance metabolizable energy and had the highest (P < .05) fasting heat productions at each temperature.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectChickens -- Feed utilization efficiency.en_US
dc.subjectChickens -- Metabolism.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineNutritional Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorReid, Bobby L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSunde, Roger A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWise, Mark E.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest8907969en_US
dc.identifier.oclc701928004en_US
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